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doc:howto:generic.flashing [2012/11/12 04:08]
uvray313
doc:howto:generic.flashing [2014/06/15 12:53] (current)
tmomas links added to Post-install section of checklist
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====== Installing OpenWrt ====== ====== Installing OpenWrt ======
The installation of OpenWrt is device specific. The installation of OpenWrt is device specific.
-A detailed procedure should be found in the [[toh:start|Table of Hardware]]. If your device is not listed, read on... Definitely have a look at the ->[[doc:techref:Flash Layout]].+A detailed procedure should be found in the wiki-page for your device. See [[toh:start|Table of Hardware]] for available ones. If your device is not listed, read on... Definitely have a look at the [[doc:techref:Flash Layout]].
{{page>meta:infobox:dangerous&noheader&nofooter&noeditbtn}} {{page>meta:infobox:dangerous&noheader&nofooter&noeditbtn}}
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:!: If your attempt to install OpenWrt fails, [[doc/howto/generic.debrick]] could help you. :!: If your attempt to install OpenWrt fails, [[doc/howto/generic.debrick]] could help you.
-:!: This HowTo is VERY generic. You cannot just use it, but you have to adapt values and other stuff to your hardware+:!: This Howto is VERY generic. You cannot just use it, but you have to adapt values and other stuff to your hardware. Look at the [[toh:start|supported hardware page]] for your device-specific documentation.
Generally, you have three options: Generally, you have three options:
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  * **''Option_3:''** boot OpenWrt over the network: [[inbox:netboot|Netbooting]] is not supported by all [[doc:techref:bootloader|bootloaders]]!   * **''Option_3:''** boot OpenWrt over the network: [[inbox:netboot|Netbooting]] is not supported by all [[doc:techref:bootloader|bootloaders]]!
-===== Installation Methods =====+===== Four Installation Methods =====
There are four ways to install OpenWrt on a device: There are four ways to install OpenWrt on a device:
-==== via original firmware ==== +==== Method 1: via OEM firmware ==== 
-Open the WebGUI of the original firmware with your web browser and install the OpenWrt firmware image file using the //"Firmware Upgrade"// option.+Open the WebUI of the **OEM firmware** with your web browser and install the OpenWrt **factory** firmware image file using the //"Firmware Upgrade"// option. Done.
-**''NOTE:''** Sometimes the original or factory firmware will only allow you to flash your device with a specific firmware file. If that is the case, you will not be able to install OpenWrt using this method.+**''NOTE:''** Sometimes the OEM firmware will only allow you to flash your device with a specific firmware file. If that is the case, you will not be able to install OpenWrt using this method. However, for some devices the build bots prepare tagged builds such that they are compliant with the firmwares from the manufacturer. This should be documented on the device specific page for your model.
- +==== Method 2: via Bootloader and an Ethernet port ==== 
-==== via Bootloader and an ethernet port ==== +Most, if not all [[doc:techref:bootloader|bootloaders]] provide built-in functionality for this purpose. Some use a [[wp>Trivial File Transfer Protocol|TFTP]]-client, others a TFTP-server, others a [[wp>File Transfer Protocol|FTP]]-client, some an FTP-server, some a web server and some use the [[wp>XMODEM]]-protocol.
-Most, if not all [[doc:techref:bootloader|bootloaders]] provide built-in functionality for this purpose. Some use a [[wp>Trivial File Transfer Protocol|TFTP]]-client, others a TFTP-server, others a [[wp>File Transfer Protocol|FTP]]-client and some even an FTP-server or web server. +
Before proceeding you need to determine the following: Before proceeding you need to determine the following:
-  * the preset IP address of the bootloader (not necessarily the same as after the device has booted the original firmware!) +  * the preset IP address of the bootloader (not necessarily identical to the IP address the device has after it has booted the original firmware!) 
-  * which protocol +  * the protocol and whether the bootloader acts as client or as server 
-  * whether the bootloader acts as client or as server +  * the correct port number (if not [[wp>List of TCP and UDP port numbers|default]])
-  * the appropriate port number [[wp>List of TCP and UDP port numbers|default ports]]+
  * the interface you need to connect to   * the interface you need to connect to
-  * a user name and and login password (if necessary)+  * a user name and login password (if necessary)
  * the time window you have after starting the device to obtain a connection   * the time window you have after starting the device to obtain a connection
Once you know all of the above parameters, you may proceed. Once you know all of the above parameters, you may proceed.
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  - **<color red>Do not overwrite or alter the bootloader</color>** until explicitly instructed to do so!   - **<color red>Do not overwrite or alter the bootloader</color>** until explicitly instructed to do so!
-**''NOTES:''** Sometimes the bootloader prevents you from flashing a non-OEM firmware.+**''NOTES:''** Sometimes even the bootloader prevents you from flashing a non-OEM firmware.
If you have a short time window, the connection between your computer and device needs to be established quickly. To make this as quick possible, you can disable auto-negotiation on your [[wp>Network interface controller|NIC]] and/or [[http://support.microsoft.com/kb/239924|disable media sensing]]. If you have a short time window, the connection between your computer and device needs to be established quickly. To make this as quick possible, you can disable auto-negotiation on your [[wp>Network interface controller|NIC]] and/or [[http://support.microsoft.com/kb/239924|disable media sensing]].
=== Specific Howtos === === Specific Howtos ===
-  * -> [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.tftp]] +  * [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.tftp]] 
-  * -> [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.ftp]] +  * [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.ftp]] 
-  * -> [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.xmodem]]+  * [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.xmodem]]
-==== 3. via Bootloader and Serial port ==== +==== Method 3: via Bootloader and Serial port ==== 
-  * -> [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.serial]]+  * [[doc:howto:generic.flashing.serial]]
-==== 4. via JTAG ==== +==== Method 4: via JTAG ==== 
--> [[doc/hardware/port.jtag]]+ * [[doc/hardware/port.jtag]]
- +==== Install a ramdisk-image into main memory ====
----- +
-==== 5. install a ramdisk-image into main memory ====+
This step shows you howto upload a new ramdisk image to the device. The existing firmware on the flash remains unchanged! You require a working serial cable to do the ramdisk upload. This step shows you howto upload a new ramdisk image to the device. The existing firmware on the flash remains unchanged! You require a working serial cable to do the ramdisk upload.
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Concrete examples: [[toh/netgear/wnr2000]], ... Concrete examples: [[toh/netgear/wnr2000]], ...
 +Don't forget to consult the other [[doc:howto:generic.overview|Generic Basic Howtos for OpenWrt]]
 +
 +
 +===== Installation Checklist =====
 +//This checklist cannot and does not completely cover all the ways you can install OpenWrt.//
----- +<html> 
-Don't forget to consult the other [[doc:howto:generic.overview|Generic Basic Howtos for OpenWrt]]+  <head> 
-----+    <style type="text/css"> 
 +      .checklist {background:rgba(255,255,255,0.50); padding:1em;} 
 +      label:after {content:"\A"; white-space:pre;} 
 +      .lvl1 {margin-left:1em; font-weight:bold; margin-top:1em;} 
 +      .lvl2 {margin-left:2em;} 
 +      .lvl3 {margin-left:4em; font-style:italic;} 
 +    </style> 
 +  </head> 
 +  <body> 
 +    <form class="checklist"> 
 +      <label class="lvl1"><input type="checkbox"> Pre-Installation</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Say hello in <a href="http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=#openwrt">#openwrt</a> channel at freenode.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Make sure that the router has currently stock/original firmware installed.</label> 
 +       <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Configure your computer to use static IP address.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Connect to the router with wire, not WiFi.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Do your own research and read all the resources about installing OpenWRT on your router:</label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/faq/before.installation">FAQ before installation</a></label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/toh/start">Table of Hardware</a></label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="https://forum.openwrt.org/">OpenWRT forum</a></label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Print or save those pages for offline reading:</label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/firstlogin">First login</a></label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/generic.failsafe">Failsafe</a></label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> (optional) <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/generic.backup">Backup flash of your router.</a></label> 
 +      <label class="lvl1"><input type="checkbox"> <b>Installation</b></label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Reboot router.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Download OpenWRT image in proper location.</label> 
 +          <label class="lvl3"><input type="checkbox"> In case of <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/generic.sysupgrade">upgrading</a> existing OpenWrt system, the proper location is RAM (usually /tmp).</label> 
 +       <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Verify MD5 checksum of the OpenWRT image you downloaded.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Make sure that there is at least as much free RAM as the size of OpenWRT image you have downloaded.</label> 
 +      <label class="lvl1"><input type="checkbox"> <b>Post-Installation</b></label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Do <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/firstlogin">First login</a> and set root password.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/generic.backup">Backup flash of your router.</a></label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> Make yourself comfortable with the <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/generic.failsafe">Failsafe</a> mode.</label> 
 +        <label class="lvl2"><input type="checkbox"> <a href="http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/basic.config">Configure your device</a></label> 
 +    </form> 
 +  </body> 
 +</html>

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doc/howto/generic.flashing.1352689693.txt.bz2 · Last modified: 2012/11/12 04:08 by uvray313