Before reading this, please have a look at Flash Layout.
A sysupgrade will replace the entire OpenWrt installation: the Linux kernel, the SquashFS partition and the JFFS2 partition. You cannot save installed OPKG packages: you will have to install them again after sysupgrade. That way everything will match, e.g. the flashed Linux Kernel and installed Kernel modules. You can manually save a some of your configuration files, but be aware that on rare occasions you will need to modify an old configuration file to work with the updated program.
It is important to download the firmware image file to the
/tmp directory is stored in RAM (using tmpfs), not in the flash storage.
It is unlikely that there is sufficient free space in flash memory but it is possible to arrange sufficient free space in RAM.
You may need to Free up RAM beforehand.
- You should check how much main memory you have currently available:
freeIn case you do not have enough free main memory, consult Free up RAM.
- Populate your
/etc/sysupgrade.confwith the configuration files you want to keep
- Obtain suitable OpenWrt firmware image: for trunk
cd /tmp wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/snapshots/trunk/PLATFORM/xxx-sysupgrade.bin wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/snapshots/trunk/PLATFORM/md5sumsAA stable
cd /tmp wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/PLATFORM/xxx-sysupgrade.bin wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09/PLATFORM/md5sums
- check the integrity of the image file:
md5sum -c md5sums 2> /dev/null | grep OK
- use the following command to upgrade:
sysupgrade -v /tmp/openwrt-ar71xx-generic-wzr-hp-ag300h-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin
- The verbose-option should give some output similar to this:
root@openwrt:/tmp$ sysupgrade -v openwrt-ar71xx-generic-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin Saving config files... root/statistics etc/sysupgrade.conf etc/sysctl.conf etc/rc.local etc/profile etc/passwd etc/firewall.user etc/dropbear/dropbear_rsa_host_key etc/dropbear/dropbear_dss_host_key etc/config/wireless etc/config/system etc/config/network etc/config/firewall etc/config/dropbear etc/config/dhcp Switching to ramdisk... Performing system upgrade... Unlocking firmware ... Writing from <stdin> to firmware ... Appending jffs2 data from /tmp/sysupgrade.tgz to firmware...TRX header not found Error fixing up TRX header Writing from <stdin> to firmware ... Upgrade completed Rebooting system...
- After the automatic reboot, the system should come up with the setting in the saved configuration files: same network IP addresses, same SSH password, etc. In case that it does not, try a cold reset (= interrupt the electrical current to the device, wait a couple of seconds and then connect it again).
- After the cold reboot, you should gain access and here you could check things out:
dmesg uname -a iptables -V ...
|For unknown reasons such a cold reset has often been reported to be necessary after a sysupgrade. This is very very bad in case you performed this remotely!|
- You do need to reinstall opkg-packages:
opkg update opkg install tc iptables-mod-ipopt wol ...
- Download a suitable OpenWrt firmware image file to your PC
- Login to the WebInterface of the router (default: http://192.168.1.1)
- Select System ⇒ Backup / Flash Firmware ⇒ Configuration to edit
- Select System ⇒ System ⇒ Custom Files to edit
- Select System ⇒ Backup / Flash Firmware ⇒ Actions (Attitude Adjustment)
- Select System ⇒ Flash Firmware (Previous versions)
- Upload the OpenWrt image file you downloaded to your PC at step 1 to your router via LuCI
- LuCI will calculate the MD5 checksum of the file, if it's correct, you are green to go
- Wait until the router comes back online
- You do need to reinstall opkg-packages
- In case
sysupgradeis not supported for your embedded device, you cannot use it. Use
mtd -r write /tmp/openwrt-ar71xx-generic-wzr-hp-ag300h-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin firmware
Netcat could be employed if you cannot free enough RAM. See netcat. Netcat needs to be installed first.
|This method is NOT recommended!|
- On your Linux PC run:
nc -q0 192.168.1.1 1234 < openwrt-ar71xx-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin
- On the router run:
nc -l -p 1234 | mtd write - firmware
|This method is much SAFER if you have enough RAM.|
This method is fine for self built firmwares.
You should check how much RAM you have currently available.(In case you do not have enough left, consult Free up RAM.)
- On your Linux PC run:
cat [specified firmware].bin | pv -b | nc -l -p 3333
- On the router run:
nc 192.168.1.111 3333 > /tmp/[specified firmware].bin
The port 3333 an IP address 192.168.1.111 are just examples. The command 'pv -b' is optional for tracking progress but maybe you have to install pv to your system previously.
sysupgrade -v /tmp/[specified firmware].bin
mtd -r write /tmp/[specified firmware].bin firmware
I have tested under Ubuntu 11.10.
Make sure your router have enough memory.
Make sure you have set the password for your router.(you must set a password for your router to enable the SSH). If not, set by doing this:
linux$ telnet 192.168.1.1 root@OpenWrt:/# passwdSee First Login for more details.
On your Linux PC run:
linux$ scp openwrt-ar71xx-tl-wr1043nd-v1-squashfs-sysupgrade.bin firstname.lastname@example.org:/tmpInput 'yes' to estabilish authenticity, then input the password of your router. Wait
scpcommand finished. Now you can see your firmware in /tmp directory.
root@OpenWrt:/# sysupgrade -v /tmp/[specified firmware].bin
192.168.1.1 is the ip address(may be called GateWay) of your router. Check by run:
linux$ route -nor you can check the the /etc/config/network file, '127.0.0.1' is the loopback ipaddress, the other one is the ip address of your router.
root@OpenWrt:/# cat /etc/config/network | grep 'ipaddr'
First check memory usage with the
cat /proc/meminfo commands; proceed if you have as much free RAM as the image is in size plus an some additional MiB of free memory.
In this example there are precisely 11416 KiB of RAM unused. All the rest 29540 - 11416 - 1248 = 18124 KiB are used for processes and the kernel and a portion (1248 used for File System Cache and buffers) of it can and will be made available by the kernel, if it be needed, the problem is, we do not know how much exactly that is. Make sure enough is available. Free space in /tmp also counts towards free memory. Therefore with:
One has actually 752+6636 KiB of free memory available.
- quickest and safest way to free up, some RAM is to delete the
rm -r /tmp/opkg-lists/
- drop caches:
echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
- prevent wireless drivers to be loaded at next boot and then reboot:
rm /etc/modules.d/*80211* rm /etc/modules.d/*ath9k* rm /etc/modules.d/b43* reboot
The wireless drivers, usually take up quite some amount of RAM and are not required (unless you are connected via wireless of course ), so an easy way to free up some RAM is to delete the symlinks in
etc/modules.d so these are not loaded into memory at the next reboot.
doc/howto/generic.sysupgrade.txt · Last modified: 2014/11/20 03:31 by danbuk