Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. There are a couple of Routing protocols to make this happen more or less automatically. For this, we are going to use static routing. The routing is handled by a component of the Kernel and can be configured by the user space tool
ip which is contained in the package
iproute2. Analogue to
tc you configure one thing per invocation and you would write a shell script which is executed at every boot or at every ifup.
There a couple of different Routing protocols. There the static routing and you can install several userspace routing daemons. http://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/internet/ip/routing/
You'll find a couple of examples there and the recipes should give you a couple of additional examples, since most of them involve some special routing configuration.
You can of course configure your routing without UCI, read on how:
Routing through your tunnel can be as simple as 'send-it-all', the default if you use LuCI to create the interface, or as complex as you want. Advanced routing is not the purpose of this howto, but if all you want is to do simple source based routing, that is, route traffic through your VPN based in the hosts IP addresses, here is how.
First you need to install the
ip package (formerly
iproute2). It allows you, among other things, to enable more than one routing table and to create rules to apply them, without any additional firewall rules. For this to work, host's IP must be always the same. You can configure it manually in the host or designate one in your DHCP using it's MAC address or host name.
opkg or LuCI to install
ip and create a new routing table. To do that edit
/etc/iproute2/rt_tables. It should look like this:
# # reserved values # 255 local 254 main 253 default 10 vpn 0 unspec # # local # #1 inr.ruhelp
Only the line
10 vpn was added and both, the number and the name are for you to chose, just don't mess with the tables already there unless you really know what you're doing. Save the file and add one ore more host rules in terminal. Supposing you want to route two hosts with addresses 192.168.1.20 and 192.168.1.30 (could be any addresses) use
ip rule add from 192.168.1.20 table vpn ip rule add from 192.168.1.30 table vpn
Now add a default route to your new table and flush the route cache using
ip route add default via <ip_of_the_far_end_of_your_tunnel> dev <pptp_iface_name> table vpn ip route flush cache
Update: If you can't get ICMP packets pass through and thus unable to open half of the websites you need to add few more lines to the above configuration so it looks like:
ip rule add from 192.168.1.20 table vpn ip rule add from 192.168.1.30 table vpn ip route add 192.168.1.20 dev <pptp_iface_name> table vpn ip route add 192.168.1.30 dev <pptp_iface_name> table vpn ip route add default via <ip_of_the_far_end_of_your_tunnel> dev <pptp_iface_name> table vpn ip route flush cache
Now all the traffic from hosts using the alternate routing table will go through the VPN. You can
traceroute from a VPN routed host to check it. The table you created will survive reboots (it's written), but the route and rules won't so you must add them using a script. Search documentation for the proper way to do that.
Update: If you can ping external IP addresses from the host through VPN, but not any other local hosts in your network (traceroute not working), default gateway and you (probably) cannot ping qualified domain addresses (DNS not working), you may want to check the following:
If you see something like this in your current configuration, that means that the rules you added precede
local rule. This means that local traffic is routed through the
vpn table you just added, because new rules have very high priority. This might be undesirable in many cases.
ip rule list 0: from 192.168.1.20 lookup vpn 0: from 192.168.1.30 lookup vpn 0: from all lookup local 32766: from all lookup main 32767: from all lookup default
All you need to do is to set the correct priority for your rules. Modify the
ip rule add commands to the following:
ip rule add from 192.168.1.20 priority 10 table vpn ip rule add from 192.168.1.30 priority 10 table vpn
You should be able to traceroute to any host on the Internet and verify that your traffic goes through VPN. You also should be able to ping your default gateway now.
You can do a lot using only
ip package routing manipulation. For even more complex routing rules, it can also be coupled with
iptables marking rules:
iptables marks the packets using
mangle table, and
ip routes them according to the marking. Just google for information about it.
See English article Policy-based routing or German article: http://www.linupedia.org/opensuse/Policy_Based_Routing