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The UCI System

The abbreviation UCI stands for Unified Configuration Interface and is intended to centralize the configuration of OpenWrt.

Configuration should be easy and straightforward, making life easier! UCI is all about that. It is the successor to the NVRAM-based configuration found in the White Russian series of OpenWrt. UCI can be seen as OpenWrt's main configuration user interface for the most important system settings. Typically, these are settings that are crucial for the functioning of the device, such as are typically found in the web interface of routers and embedded devices; that is, functionality that is integrated in the system builds. Examples are the main network interface configuration, wireless settings, logging functionality and remote access configuration.

In addition, selected third party programs have been made compatible with the UCI system, so these can be managed more easily as well. Many programs have their own configuration files lying around somewhere, like /etc/network/interfaces, /etc/exports, /etc/dnsmasq.conf or /etc/samba/smb.conf and they often use different syntaxes. With OpenWrt, you don't have to bother with any of them and need to change only the UCI configuration file(s). Of course, most of the software that you would like to install will not have been prepared for UCI configuration, which is a good thing, because oftentimes you will want the full power of an application's own configuration interface, as it was intended by the developers. Therefore, only a few selected programs which benefit from availability of a centralised configuration have been made UCI-compatible by the OpenWrt package maintainers (see the UCI configuration file list below).

Most applications (save some that are made in-house) are made UCI-compatible by the package maintainer by simply writing the original configuration file (which is read by the program) according to the chosen settings in the corresponding UCI file. This is done upon running the initialization scripts in /etc/init.d/. See Init scripts for more information. Thus, when starting a daemon with such a UCI-compatible initialization script, you should be aware that the program's original configuration file gets overwritten. For example, in the case of Samba/CIFS, the file /etc/samba/smb.conf is overwritten with UCI settings from the UCI configuration file /etc/config/samba when running /etc/init.d/samba start. In addition, the application's configuration file is often stored in RAM instead of in flash, because it does not need to be stored in non-volatile memory and it is rewritten after every change, based on the UCI file. There are ways to disable UCI in case you want to adjust settings in the original configuration file not available through UCI. FIXME add the recommended way please, or link to it.

For those non-UCI compatible programs, there is a convenient list of some non-UCI configuration files you may want to tend to. Note that, for most third party programs, you should consult the program's own documentation.

Common Principles

OpenWrt's central configuration is split into several files located in the /etc/config/ directory. Each file relates roughly to the part of the system it configures. You can edit the configuration files with a text editor or modify them with the command line utility program uci. UCI configuration files are also modifiable through various programming APIs (like Shell, Lua and C), which is also how web interfaces like LuCI make changes to the UCI files.

Upon changing a UCI configuration file, whether through a text editor or the command line, the services or executables that are affected must be (re)started (or, in some cases, simply reloaded) by an init.d call, such that the updated UCI configuration is applied to them. Many programs are made compatible with UCI in this way by making their init.d script write their standard software specific configuration files. The init.d script first properly writes such a configuration file to the software's expected location and it is read in again by restarting the executable. Note that just (re)starting the executable directly, without init.d calls, will not result in an UCI update to relegate UCI config to the program's expected configuration file. Changes in files in /etc/config/ then take no effect.

As an example of modifying the UCI configuration, suppose you want to change the device's IP address from the default 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.2.1. To do this, using any text editor, such as vi, change the line

option ipaddr 192.168.1.1

in the file /etc/config/network to:

option ipaddr 192.168.2.1

Next, commit the settings by running

/etc/init.d/network restart

In this case, remember that you have to login again using SSH as the device is now accessible at its new IP address!

Configuration Files

File Description
Basic
/etc/config/dhcp Dnsmasq configuration and DHCP settings
/etc/config/dropbear SSH server options
/etc/config/firewall NAT, packet filter, port forwarding, etc.
/etc/config/network Switch, interface and route configuration
/etc/config/system Misc. system settings
/etc/config/wireless Wireless settings and wifi network definition
IPv6
/etc/config/ahcpd Ad-Hoc Configuration Protocol (AHCP) server and forwarder configuration
/etc/config/aiccu AICCU client configuration
/etc/config/dhcp6c WIDE-DHCPv6 client
/etc/config/dhcp6s WIDE-DHCPv6 server
/etc/config/gw6c GW6c client configuration
/etc/config/radvd Router Advertisement (radvd) configuration
Other
/etc/config/bbstored BoxBackup server configuration
/etc/config/ddns Dynamic DNS configuration (ddns-scripts)
/etc/config/etherwake Wake-on-Lan: etherwake
/etc/config/freifunk_p2pblock Uses iptables layer7-, ipp2p- and recent-modules to block p2p/filesharing traffic
/etc/config/fstab Mount points and swap
/etc/config/hd-idle Another idle-daemon for attached hard drives
/etc/config/httpd Web server options (Busybox httpd, deprecated)
/etc/config/ipset-dns Configure http://git.zx2c4.com/ipset-dns/about/ ipset-dns
/etc/config/luci Base LuCI config
/etc/config/luci_statistics Configuration of Statistics packet
/etc/config/mini_snmpd mini_snmpd settings
/etc/config/minidlna MiniDLNA settings
/etc/config/mjpg-streamer Streaming application for Linux-UVC compatible webcams
/etc/config/mountd OpenWrt automount daemon
/etc/config/mroute Configuration files for multiple WAN routes
/etc/config/multiwan Simple multi WAN configuration
/etc/config/mwan3 Multi-WAN config with load balancing and failover
/etc/config/ntpclient Getting the correct time
/etc/config/p910nd config for non-spooling Printer daemon p910nd.server
/etc/config/pure-ftpd Pure-FTPd server config
/etc/config/qos Implementing Quality of Service for the upload
/etc/config/racoon racoon IPsec daemon
/etc/config/samba settings for the Microsoft file and print services daemon
/etc/config/snmpd SNMPd settings
/etc/config/sshtunnel Settings for the package sshtunnel
/etc/config/stund STUN server configuration
/etc/config/tinc tinc package configuration
/etc/config/transmission BitTorrent configuration
/etc/config/uhttpd Web server options (uHTTPd)
/etc/config/upnpd miniupnpd UPnP server settings
/etc/config/users user database for different services
/etc/config/ushare uShare UPnP server settings
/etc/config/vblade vblade userspace AOE target
/etc/config/vnstat vnstat downloader settings
/etc/config/wifitoggle Script to toogle WiFi with a button
/etc/config/wol Wake-on-Lan: wol
/etc/config/wshaper wondershaper qos script settings
/etc/config/znc ZNC bouncer configuration

File Syntax

The UCI configuration files usually consist of one or more config statements, so called sections with one or more option statements defining the actual values.

Below is an example of a simple configuration file:

package 'example'

config 'example' 'test'
        option   'string'      'some value'
        option   'boolean'     '1'
        list     'collection'  'first item'
        list     'collection'  'second item'

  • The config 'example' 'test' statement defines the start of a section with the type example and the name test. There can also be so called anonymous sections with only a type, but no name identifier. The type is important for the processing programs to decide how to treat the enclosed options.
  • The option 'string' 'some value' and option 'boolean' '1' lines define simple values within the section. Note that there are no syntactical differences between text and boolean options. Per convention, boolean options may have one of the values '0', 'no', 'off', 'false' or 'disabled' to specify a false value or '1' , 'yes', 'on', 'true' or 'enabled' to specify a true value.
  • In the lines starting with a list keyword an option with multiple values is defined. All list statements that share the same name, collection in our example, will be combined into a single list of values with the same order as in the configuration file.
  • The indentation of the option and list statements is a convention to improve the readability of the configuration file but it's not syntactically required.
  • If an option is absent and not required, the default value is assumed. If it is absent and required, it may trigger an error in the application or other unwanted behaviour.

Usually you do not need to enclose identifiers or values in quotes. Quotes are only required if the enclosed value contains spaces or tabs. Also it's legal to use double- instead of single-quotes when typing configuration options.

All of the examples below are valid UCI syntax:

  • option example value
  • option 'example' value
  • option example "value"
  • option "example" 'value'
  • option 'example' "value"

In contrast, the following examples are not valid UCI syntax:

  • option 'example" "value' (quotes are unbalanced)
  • option example some value with space (note the missing quotes around the value)

It is important to know that UCI identifiers and config file names may contain only the characters a-z, 0-9 and _. E.g. no hyphens (-) are allowed. Option values may contain any character (as long they are properly quoted).

Command Line Utility

For adjusting settings, one normally changes the UCI config files directly. However, for scripting purposes, all of UCI configuration can also be read and changed using the uci command line utility. For developers requiring automatic parsing of the UCI configuration, it is therefore redundant, unwise, and inefficient to use awk and grep to parse OpenWrt's config files. The uci utility offers all functionality with respect to modifying and parsing UCI.

Below is the usage, as well as some useful examples of how to use this powerful utility.

When using uci to write configuration files, the files are always rewritten in whole and non-recognised commands are omitted. This means that any extraneous lines in the file are deleted, such as comments. If you have UCI configuration files that you have edited yourself and you want to preserve your own comments and blank lines, you should not use the command line utility but edit the files normally. Note that some files, such as the uHTTPd configuration file, already contain many comments when the application is first installed. Also, note that some applications such as LuCI also use the uci utility and thus may rewrite UCI configuration files.

When there are multiple rules next to each other, UCI supports array-like references for them. If there are 8 NTP servers defined in /etc/config/system, UCI will let you reference their sections as system.@timeserver[0] for the first or system.@timeserver[7] for the last one. You can also use negative indexes, such as system.@timeserver[-1]. "-1" means the last one, "-2" means the second-to-last one, and so on. This comes in very handy when appending new rules to the end of a list. See the examples below.

Usage

root@OpenWrt:/lib/config# uci

Usage: uci [<options>] <command> [<arguments>]

Commands:
	batch
	export     [<config>]
	import     [<config>]
	changes    [<config>]
	commit     [<config>]
	add        <config> <section-type>
	add_list   <config>.<section>.<option>=<string>
	show       [<config>[.<section>[.<option>]]]
	get        <config>.<section>[.<option>]
	set        <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<value>
	delete     <config>[.<section[.<option>]]
	rename     <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<name>
	revert     <config>[.<section>[.<option>]]

Options:
	-c <path>  set the search path for config files (default: /etc/config)
	-d <str>   set the delimiter for list values in uci show
	-f <file>  use <file> as input instead of stdin
	-m         when importing, merge data into an existing package
	-n         name unnamed sections on export (default)
	-N         don't name unnamed sections
	-p <path>  add a search path for config change files
	-P <path>  add a search path for config change files and use as default
	-q         quiet mode (don't print error messages)
	-s         force strict mode (stop on parser errors, default)
	-S         disable strict mode
	-X         do not use extended syntax on 'show'

Command Target Description
commit [<config>] Writes changes of the given configuration file, or if none is given, all configuration files, to the filesystem. All "uci set", "uci add", "uci rename" and "uci delete" commands are staged into a temporary location and written to flash at once with "uci commit". This is not needed after editing configuration files with a text editor, but for scripts, GUIs and other programs working directly with UCI files.
batch - Executes a multi-line UCI script which is typically wrapped into a here document syntax.
export [<config>] Exports the configuration in a machine readable format. It is used internally to evaluate configuration files as shell scripts.
import [<config>] Imports configuration files in UCI syntax.
changes [<config>] List staged changes to the given configuration file or if none given, all configuration files.
add <config> <section-type> Add an anonymous section of type section-type to the given configuration.
add_list <config>.<section>.<option>=<string> Add the given string to an existing list option.
show [<config>[.<section>[.<option>]]] Show the given option, section or configuration in compressed notation.
get <config>.<section>[.<option>] Get the value of the given option or the type of the given section.
set <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<value> Set the value of the given option, or add a new section with the type set to the given value.
delete <config>[.<section[.<option>]] Delete the given section or option.
rename <config>.<section>[.<option>]=<name> Rename the given option or section to the given name.
revert <config>[.<section>[.<option>]] Revert the given option, section or configuration file.

Examples:

Setting a value

If we want to change the listening port of the uHTTPd Web Server from 80 to 8080 we change the configuration in /etc/config/uhttpd :

root@OpenWrt:~# uci set uhttpd.main.listen_http=8080 root@OpenWrt:~# uci commit uhttpd root@OpenWrt:~# /etc/init.d/uhttpd restart root@OpenWrt:~#

Done, now the configuration file is updated and uHTTPd listens on port 8080.

Export an entire configuration

root@OpenWrt:~# uci export httpd package 'httpd' config 'httpd' option 'port' '80' option 'home' '/www' root@OpenWrt:~#

Show the configuration "tree" for a given config

root@OpenWrt:~# uci show httpd httpd.@httpd[0]=httpd httpd.@httpd[0].port=80 httpd.@httpd[0].home=/www root@OpenWrt:~#

Display just the value of an option

root@OpenWrt:~# uci get httpd.@httpd[0].port 80 root@OpenWrt:~#

append an entry to a list

uci add_list system.ntp.server='0.de.pool.ntp.org'

replace a list completely

uci delete system.ntp.server uci add_list system.ntp.server='0.de.pool.ntp.org' uci add_list system.ntp.server='1.de.pool.ntp.org' uci add_list system.ntp.server='2.de.pool.ntp.org'

Create a new named section of a given type

"uci add blah" will create a new _anonymous_ section of type blah. ie,

#touch /etc/config/playapp #uci show playapp #uci add playapp blah cfg02a4fc #uci show playapp playapp.@blah[0]=blah # uci commit && cat /etc/config/playapp config blah #

If you actually want a named section of that type, for instance,

config blah this_name option xxx yyy config blah other_name option xxx zzz

Then "uci add" cannot be used, instead, use this synt

#rm /etc/config/playapp && touch /etc/config/playapp # uci set playapp.myname=mysectiontype # uci set playapp.othername=mysectiontype # uci commit && uci show playapp playapp.myname=mysectiontype playapp.othername=mysectiontype # cat /etc/config/playapp config mysectiontype 'myname' config mysectiontype 'othername'

UCI paths

Consider this example config file:

# /etc/config/foo config bar 'first' option name 'Mr. First' config bar option name 'Mr. Second' config bar 'third' option name 'Mr. Third'

Then the paths below are equal in every group:

# Mr. First uci get foo.@bar[0].name uci get foo.@bar[-0].name uci get foo.@bar[-3].name uci get foo.first.name # Mr. Second uci get foo.@bar[1].name uci get foo.@bar[-2].name # uci get foo.second.name won't work; label 'second' undefined. # Mr. Third uci get foo.@bar[2].name uci get foo.@bar[-1].name uci get foo.third.name

If you show it, you get :

# uci show foo foo.first=bar foo.first.name=Mr. First foo.@bar[0]=bar foo.@bar[0].name=Mr. Second foo.third=bar foo.third.name=Mr. Third

But if you used "uci show foo.@bar[0]", you will see:

# uci show foo.@bar[0] foo.first=bar foo.first.name=Mr. First :-(

Query interface state

root@OpenWrt:~# uci -P/var/state show network.wan network.wan=interface network.wan.ifname=eth0.1 network.wan.proto=dhcp network.wan.defaultroute=0 network.wan.peerdns=0 network.wan.device=eth0.1 network.wan.ipaddr=10.11.12.13 network.wan.broadcast=255.255.255.255 network.wan.netmask=255.255.255.0 network.wan.gateway=10.11.12.1 network.wan.dnsdomain= network.wan.dns=10.11.12.100 10.11.12.200 network.wan.up=1 network.wan.lease_gateway=10.11.12.1 network.wan.lease_server=10.11.12.25 network.wan.lease_acquired=1262482940 network.wan.lease_lifetime=5400 network.wan.lease_hostname=x-10-11-12-13 root@OpenWrt:~#

Add a firewall rule

This is a good example of both adding a firewall rule to forward the TCP SSH port, and of the negative (-1) syntax used with uci.

root@OpenWrt:~# uci add firewall rule root@OpenWrt:~# uci set firewall.@rule[-1].src=wan root@OpenWrt:~# uci set firewall.@rule[-1].target=ACCEPT root@OpenWrt:~# uci set firewall.@rule[-1].proto=tcp root@OpenWrt:~# uci set firewall.@rule[-1].dest_port=22 root@OpenWrt:~# uci commit firewall root@OpenWrt:~# /etc/init.d/firewall restart

Get WAN IP address

  • Backfire
    uci -P/var/state get network.wan.ipaddr
  • The uci state vars are deprecated and not used anymore for network related information. In Trunk (not really uci) do
    . /lib/functions/network.sh; network_get_ipaddr ip wan; echo $ip

Get WAN interface

  • Backfire
    uci -P/var/state get network.wan.ifname
  • The uci state vars are deprecated and not used anymore for network related information. In Trunk (not really uci) do
    . /lib/functions/network.sh; network_get_device if_wan wan; echo $if_wan
  • Or
    . /lib/functions/network.sh; network_get_physdev if_wan wan; echo $if_wan

Get SSID

 uci get wireless.@wifi-iface[-1].ssid

Defaults:

To set some system defaults the first time the device boots, create a script in the folder

/etc/uci-defaults/
All scripts in that folder are automatically executed by /etc/init.d/boot and if they exited with code 0 deleted afterwards (scripts that did not exit with code 0 are not deleted and will be re-executed during the next boot until they also successfully exit).

Porting UCI to a different Linux distribution

doc/uci.txt · Last modified: 2014/12/17 12:22 by rpjday