GPIO pins, eh? The integrated Broadcom CPU BCM4712 used in the WRT54G provides a number of General Purpose Input/Output pins (or GPIO pins) that are used for various purposes in the router. We have been able to identify 8 such pins until now and these are assigned as follows:
|Pin||Direction||v2.2 Name||v3.0+ Name||SD Card Name|
|GPIO 0||(Output)||WLAN LED||Unknown||Not used|
|GPIO 1||Output||POWER LED||POWER LED||Not used|
|GPIO 2||Output||ADM_EECS||WHITE LED||DI (only v4.0+/WRT54GL)|
|GPIO 3||Output||ADM_EESK||AMBER LED||CLK|
|GPIO 4||Input||ADM_EEDO||FRONT BUTTON||DO|
|GPIO 5||Output||ADM_EEDI||Unknown, robo_reset?||DI (only up to v3.1)|
|GPIO 6||Input||Reset button||Reset?||Not used|
|GPIO 7||Output||DMZ LED||DMZ LED||CS|
On WRT54G v2.2 the ADM_* pins constitute an interface used to configure the ADMTek switch chip. Since this only happens during the boot process, we are free to use these pins to our likings afterwards (the corresponding pins on the switch chip will be tri-state after configuration). The names of the other pins should be self explanatory. The direction of the pins can be individually programmed (even though this of course does not make sense for every pin).
Kamikaze 7.07 and later now includes a kmod-broadcom-mmc package for WRT54G but it does not have as good compatibility as the optimized driver, mentioned below.
ipkg install kmod-broadcom-mmc
There is also an optimized version with better best card compatibility than the original mmc.o module. It's recommended if the Kamikaze package is not working. Althought it's made for White Russian, it seems to work fine with Kamikaze based on kernel 2.4.
tar zxvf mmc-v1.3.4-gpio2.tgz cp mmc-v1-3.4-gpio2/mmc.o /lib/modules/2.4.34/
Configure the gpiomask (see below for correct value) and load the mmc module. Verify that it loaded correctly by checking the dmesg log.
echo 0x9c > /proc/diag/gpiomask insmod mmc dmesg
If the unit locks up, make sure the set the correct gpiomask before loading the driver. The gpiomask value can be found by adding up all the hex values in the following table:
|GPIO PIN 0||0x01|
|GPIO PIN 1||0x02|
|GPIO PIN 2||0x04|
|GPIO PIN 3||0x08|
|GPIO PIN 4||0x10|
|GPIO PIN 5||0x20|
|GPIO PIN 6||0x40|
|GPIO PIN 7||0x80|
|GPIO PIN 8||0x100|
|GPIO PIN 9||0x200|
|GPIO PIN 10||0x400|
|GPIO PIN 11||0x800|
|GPIO PIN 12||0x1000|
|GPIO PIN 13||0x2000|
|GPIO PIN 14||0x4000|
|GPIO PIN 15||0x8000|
E.g. for WRT54GL that is using GPIO line 2, 3, 4, and 7:
Use squarebox.co.uk online hex calculator or similar to add up the values.
This is one very cool mod! Credit goes to kiel.kool.dk (seems to be down, web.archive.org mirror) for this awesome work. They have also pioneered some other interesting mods as well. Check out http://duff.dk/wrt54gs/ for info. They created this mod for the wrt54g version 2, then I (INH) ported it to version 3. If you have another version, you are going to have to figure out how to port it.. but it shouldn't be too hard.
This mod allows you to read and write from a MMC/SD card (including miniSD and microSD) in SPI mode. This is awesome as it can literally give you 555 time the storage space. You can now have over one gigabyte of memory to store and run programs from, store packet logs, etc etc.. It's not a very hard mod to do, unless you have something other than a wrt54g version 2 or 3. If thats the case, please read on, as I go over how I ported this mod to my version 3.
|http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Hardware/Linksys/WRT54GL/mmc_gif?action=AttachFile&do=get&target=mmc.gif||1. CS - Chip Select for the SD card||GPIO 7 (0x80)|
|2. DI - Data in on the SD card.||GPIO 5 (0x20) / GPIO 2 (0x04) *|
|3. VSS - Ground is a good thing||GND|
|4. VDD - We need power of course. 3.3 V will do the job||3.3 V|
|5. CLK - The clock we generate for the SD card||GPIO 3 (0x08)|
|6. VSS2 - Another ground is also a good thing||GND (Not on microSD)|
|7. DO - Data out from the SD card||GPIO 4 (0x10)|
* GPIO 5 was used for WRT54G version up to v3.1 and GPIO 2 for WRT54G v4.0 and later, including WRT54GL. Other units may have a different layout.
The following is the guide from kiel.kool.dk (web.archive.org mirror) by Rasmus Rohde and Mads Ulrik Kristoffersenon about installing an MMC/SD card reader/writer in a wrt54g version 2, with added commentary where I feel is appropriate
I added now comments for WRT HW-version 2.2 where the GPIO locations are different, but the general procedure is the same.
This project is for people who would like to add a little storage to their Linksys WRT54G router besides the builtin 4MB flash ram. What we will do is connect an SD card reader to some of the GPIO pins of the CPU found inside the Linksys and with the help of a little driver we can use as a block device from Linux. This means that if you compile your kernel for the Linksys with e.g. support for MSDOS partitions and VFAT you will be able to mount, read, write, partition and so on your normal SD cards. The speed obtainable for reading and writing seems to be about 200 KB/s.
What you need
How to proceed
| http://downloads.OpenWrt.org/inh/reference/mmc.gif | 1. CS - Chip Select for the SD card | GPIO7 |
|2. DI - Data in on the SD card.||GPIO5|
|3. VSS - Ground is a good thing||GND|
|4. VDD - We need power of course. 3.3V will do the job||3.3v|
|5. CLK - The clock we generate for the SD card||GPIO3|
|6. VSS2 - Another ground is also a good thing||GND|
|7. DO - Data out from the SD card||GPIO4|
* We will be driving the SD card in SPI mode, meaning that only one of the four data out pins are used (pin 7). Obtaining the specs for driving the card in the native SD mode is VERY costly and furthermore the limited number of GPIO pins available inside the router also mandates the use of some sort of serial protocol. The two VSS pins can simply be wired together for this project (VSS2 is used to control the sleep mode of the card). With this in mind lets look at the solder points in the router.
Proceed by soldering a wire to each of the 6 solder points. Pay special attention not to short circuit the pins of RP3 - even though these solder points were chosen because they provide the most spacious access point to the GPIO lines needed, it's still pretty tight quarters, so watch out!
First of all we suggest that you configure a kernel with support for MSDOS partitions and VFAT. Partition support must be built into the kernel whereas VFAT can be built both as a module or into the kernel. These are some things you may want to include in your .config:
CONFIG_PARTITION_ADVANCED=y CONFIG_MSDOS_PARTITION=y CONFIG_FAT_FS=y CONFIG_MSDOS_FS=y CONFIG_VFAT_FS=y
Now get the driver and the Makefile. You will need to modify the Makefile to point to where your OpenWRT linux kernel headers are and also the mipsel compiler location. When that is done just type make (ignore the warnings - they are OK). But you may just as well install the freifunk-sdcard and freifunk-sdinit mmc module packages which work fine on my whiterussian RC5.
The module is now ready to be inserted. Make sure a card is placed in the reader and then load the module. Check with dmesg that everything went OK, and hopefully you should now have some new devices in /dev/mmc/… Here is a little snippet of a "conversation" with the router
root@radio:~# ls -al /lib/modules/2.4.20/ drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 1 00:08 . drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 1 00:01 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 28 Jan 1 00:01 et.o -> /rom/lib/modules/2.4.20/et.o -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 50616 Jan 1 00:02 fat.o -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12780 Jan 1 00:08 mmc.o -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 11244 Jan 1 00:03 msdos.o -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 19156 Jan 1 00:05 vfat.o lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 28 Jan 1 00:01 wl.o -> /rom/lib/modules/2.4.20/wl.o
root@radio:~# insmod mmc Using /lib/modules/2.4.20/mmc.o
root@radio:~# dmesg | tail -7 mmc Hardware init mmc Card init mmc Card init *1* mmc Card init *2* Size = 249856, hardsectsize = 512, sectors = 499712 Partition check: mmca: p1
root@radio:~# insmod fat Using /lib/modules/2.4.20/fat.o
root@radio:~# insmod msdos Using /lib/modules/2.4.20/msdos.o
root@radio:~# mount -t msdos /dev/mmc/disc0/part1 /mnt root@radio:~# ls -al /mnt drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 16384 Jan 1 1970 . drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 1 00:01 .. -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Jan 1 00:07 bossepr0.pic -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 22646 Jan 1 00:02 ld-uclib.so -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 12780 Jan 1 2000 mmc.o -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 1048576 Jan 1 2000 temp.bin -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 16777216 Jan 1 2000 temp2.bin -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 16777216 Jan 1 2000 temp3.bin -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 693 Jan 1 2000 temp4.bin
root@radio:~# df Filesystem 1k-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on /dev/root 896 896 0 100% /rom /dev/mtdblock/4 2176 1580 596 73% / /dev/mmc/disc0/part1 249728 33856 215872 14% /mnt
Using OpenWRT RC5 no msdos kernel module is needed. The mount-option -tmsdos has to be omitted.
A little help with kernel compilation
The easiest way to get a kernel running with the needed fs support is probably by downloading OpenWRT and building the flash image. When you are familiar with this process, it is quite easy to change the settings for your kernel. Just go to buildroot/build_mipsel/linux and type make menuconfig. Go to file systems → Partition Types and check "Advanced partition selection" and "PC BIOS (MSDOS partition tables) support". In "File systems" you should also check "DOS FAT fs support" and optionally "VFAT (Windows 95) fs support". When done just exit saving the changed and type make dep zImage to force a rebuild of the kernel. Then you can just rebuild your OpenWRT image and the new kernel will be included automatically. GPIO pins, eh?
The integrated Broadcom CPU BCM4712 used in the WRT54G provides a number of General Purpose Input/Output pins (or GPIO pins) that are used for various purposes in the router. We have been able to identify 8 such pins until now and these are assigned as follows:
|GPIO 0||(Output)||WLAN LED|
|GPIO 1||Output||POWER LED|
|GPIO 6||Input||Reset button|
|GPIO 7||Output||DMZ LED|
The pins used in this project are the ADM_EESK, ADM_EEDO, ADM_EEDI and DMZ LED pins. The ADM_* pins constitute an interface used to configure the ADMTek switch chip. Since this only happens during the boot process, we are free to use these pins to our likings afterwards (the corresponding pins on the switch chip will be tri-state after configuration). The names of the other pins should be self explanatory. The direction of the pins can be individually programmed (even though this of course does not make sense for every pin).
Important note for v2 hardware and some WRT54GS: It is worth double-checking the GPIO pin allocations on RP3. The picture above was not correct for my V2 WRT54G. The CLK and DO, which are GPIO3 and GPIO4, were swapped compared to the picture.
Further unverified evidence supports that the wrt54gs v1.1 hardware also has gpio 3 and 4 switched. Can definitely confirm this swapped CLK/DO for my WRT54GS V1.0, so it's likely that the V1.1 statement before is correct, too) I soldered to the right-hand side of RP3 as shown in the picture with GPIO5 (DI) at the bottom, GPIO4 (DO) next up and GPIO3 (CLK) up from that.
A good way to test the pin allocations is with the gpio utility and a script to toggle the GPIO pin periodically, then search for the pin with a digital multimeter or oscilloscope probe. I toggled the pins with the following single line in the shell (example for GPIO 5):
while true; do gpio enable 5; sleep 1; gpio disable 5; sleep 1; done
I then used my multimeter to detect the pin toggling between 0V and 3.3V every second. I seriously recommend that you do this to verify which pins you are working on prior to doing any soldering.
On a WRT54G Version 2 the tests on GPIO4 failed. According to http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=31968 the reason is an incomplete initialization of the GPIOs. Using the mmc.o downloadable at the end of the thread the MMC is detected and working, the GPIO test is also working after loading this module.
For v2.2 hardware:
GPIO 3 can be found on Pin 3 of RP4 (near the BCM switch IC), just left of it you can find GPIO 5 next to the RA10 Text label. GPIO 4 is located near the RA13 Text label (near to the Power LED)
This is a picture of the GPIO 3+5 for WRT54G v2.2 taken from http://linuxbench.org
*to be written, in the meantime you can find version 3 info here.
Basically the same as above, but different GPIO points on the board.
Power - 3.3v (red), and GND (black). I looped through the board for strength of connection:
GPIO 3, as mentioned in the URL above, on the right hand side of the amber LED:
GPIO 4 and 7:
GPIO 5 - definitely right next to the "RA10" label:
Picture taken from otago.ac.nz.
Almost the same as for version 3, except GPIO 5 seems to be missing from the board, so use GPIO 2 instead and edit the driver accordingly. Here is more version 4 info someone has made available, including pictures and modified driver source and binary. Sadly this link is dead, so you currently have to use the wayback machine to see where to solder the cables. that site from web.archive.org.
Or, use the newer optimized mmc driver for GPIO2 in the driver section above.
+3.3V and GND:
GPIO 2 and 3:
GPIO 4 and 7:
Pictures taken from cascade.dyndns.org.
Here is another mod done for a WRT54GS v4, essentially same as for WRTG54 v4 and WRTG54GL.
Buffalo WHR-HP-G54 connections are:
GPIO3 Output (uninstalled LED) to CLK (SD Card #5) Connect to the very small pad above "R4" in the picture.
GPIO6 Output (AOSS LED) to DO (SD Card #2) Connect to the bottom of the resistor in the picture.
GPIO7 Output (Diag LED) to CS (SD Card #1) Connect to the left side of the resistor shown in the picture.
GPIO5 Input (Bridge/Auto switch) to DI (SD Card #7) Connect to the C242 on the side nearest R151 in the picture. The switch must remain in the "auto" position for proper operation.
3.3v (near voltage regulator) to Vcc (SD Card #4)Connect to the pad shown in the picture.
GND (Bridge/Auto switch frame) to Gnd (SD Card #3&6) Available in many places - the frame of the switch is convenient.
echo 0xe8 > /proc/diag/gpiomask to avoid hotplug problems.
Here is a link that describes how to add a SD card to a WAP54G v31 (EU), this project uses the card read only, first a cramfs is created on the card with the PC (this is the native system the Linksys software uses), so no MSDOS stuff needs to be added to the kernel (there is only 2MB FLASH in WAP54G v31 EU). http://panteltje.com/panteltje/wap54g/to-linksys-wap54g-forum-2.txt
This is another howto for wap54g…
It uses optimized mmc v1.3.4
filesystem: ext2, vfat
max cardsize: 2GB
I read on several websites, that some people managed to wire a SD Card (or a MMC) to a Fonera access point. I run into one issue so I decided to describe the process here.
Solder the SD Card
The first step, is to locate the SW pins (near the antenna).. simply solder some wires like this:
SD Card Fonera DO (pin 7) SW1 CLK (pin 5) SW2 DI (pin 2) SW5 CS (pin 1) SW6 Gnd (pin 3) Gnd Vcc (pin 4) Vcc
You can solder the VCC, and Gnd on the serial pins.
Unsolder the Caps
In my first tests, I discovered the SD card is detected, so I checked the signals. And discover the clk isn’t really clear.. So I decided to remove the capacitor on the SPI bus. (C142, C143, C144, C145)
Install software and test
Next we need to install the kernel module on OpenWRT. You can find it on the Phrozen website. Simply ipkg install the file and it should be ok. Now, let’s try: insert a SD Card, and reboot, you should see something like this in your log.
Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : MMC Driver for Fonera Version 2.5 (050507) -- '2B|!2B' (firstname.lastname@example.org) Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : Card Found Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : card in op mode Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : SIZE : 241, nMUL : 6, COUNT : 1932, NAME : 256MB Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : Card Initialised Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : The inserted card has a capacity of 253231104 Bytes Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : adding disk Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.info kernel: mmc1 Jan 1 00:00:49 OpenWrt user.warn kernel: mmc : Card was Found
So now you can mount it:
mount /dev/mmc0 /mnt
This stuff, is working really well, I managed to have around 150Ko/s (reading) which is far enough for my needs. The only issue right now, is that you need to carefully umount the card before removing it, otherwise the fonera will crash.