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toh:buyerguide [2012/11/12 15:56]
uvray313
toh:buyerguide [2015/05/04 21:35] (current)
theoradicus ralink acquired by mediatek 2011 according wikidevi
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 ====== Buyers'​ Guide ====== ====== Buyers'​ Guide ======
-OpenWrt is a niche Linux distribution,​ which enables you to deploy a vast number ​of software. Your hardware is the only limit. This guide is intended to help you pick the right hardware ​for the intended utilization.+OpenWrt is a niche Linux distribution,​ which enables you to deploy a vast variety ​of software. Your hardware is the only limit. This guide is intended to help you pick the right hardware ​to meet your particular needs.
  
-| {{:​meta:​icons:​tango:​dialog-information.png?​nolink}} |  **OpenWrt does not recommend any hardware or manufacturer!** ​ \\ There is no "best hardware",​ so stop asking. Purchase something that meets your requirements. \\ Inform yourself about the //current hardware support// ​in the Internet and ask other users/​developers for //a personal recommendation//​ in the forum. \\ A personal recommendation can be informative and helpful, or it can simply be a pile of crap. Unproven claims and make-believes. \\ Avoid overhyped overpriced ​shit. Embedded ​hardware can be VERY low costThis is something goodThe magic is done by OpenWrt. ​ |+| {{:​meta:​icons:​tango:​dialog-information.png?​nolink}} |  **OpenWrt does not recommend any hardware or manufacturer!** ​ \\ There is no "best hardware",​ so stop asking. Purchase something that meets your requirements. \\ Inform yourself about the //current hardware support// ​on the Internet and ask other users/​developers for //a personal recommendation//​ in the forum. \\ Avoid overhypedoverpriced ​products -embedded ​hardware can be VERY inexpensive ​OpenWrt ​is what does the magic!  |
  
 ===== Features ===== ===== Features =====
-  * **Bootloader** +==== Bootloader ​==== 
-    * the [[doc:​techref:​bootloader]] should not only be under any FOSS license, but preferably under the GPL, so that they really are forced to release the complete source code+    * the [[doc:​techref:​bootloader]] should not only be under a [[wp>​Free_and_open-source_software|FOSS]] license, but preferably under the GPL, so that the OEM is forced to release the complete source code
     * some bootloaders make installing OpenWrt unnecessarily complicated or even impossible!     * some bootloaders make installing OpenWrt unnecessarily complicated or even impossible!
     * some bootloaders allow you to //boot from a USB device// or //Boot over Ethernet// but many do not     * some bootloaders allow you to //boot from a USB device// or //Boot over Ethernet// but many do not
-  * **LAN:** / **Ethernet** + 
-    * **How many [[wp>​Network interface controller|NICs]]**?​ Common are one or two (//Ethernet [[wp>​Media access control|MAC]]-blocks ​integrated into the SoC, which are connected over a [[wp>​Media Independent Interface|xMII]] to a [[wp>PHY (chip)]] ​on the PCB.//) +==== LAN ==== 
-    * Which Layer 1 standard ​shall the NIC/NICs support? BASE100-TX (100MBit/​s, ​aka [[wp>​Fast Ethernet]]) or BASE1000-T (1000MBit/​s, ​aka [[wp>​Gigabit Ethernet]])?​ +    * **How many [[wp>​Network interface controller|NICs]]** ​does the [[wp>​System on a chip]] incorporate? Common are **one** or **two**, very seldom more.\\ These are implemented as [[doc/hardware/SoC]]-integrated ​Ethernet-[[wp>​Media access control|MAC]]-blocks,​ which are each connected over a [[wp>​Media Independent Interface|xMII]] to a distinct ​[[wp>PHY (chip)]].\\ **''​Note:''​** Do not confuse ​the number of Ports with the number of NICs
-    * Is there an integrated ​ethernet ​switch? +    * Which Ethernet-Layer-1 standard ​does the NIC/NICs support?\\ **BASE100-TX** (i.e. 100MBit/s, [[wp>​Fast Ethernet]]) or\\ **BASE1000-T** (i.e. 1000MBit/s, [[wp>​Gigabit Ethernet]])?​ 
-    * Which Layer 1 standard does the integrated switch support? +    * Is there an **integrated ​Ethernet ​switch**
-    * How many ports does it have+    * Which Ethernet-Layer-1 standard does the integrated switch support? ​(BASE-100TX or BASE1000-T) 
-    * Is the switch manageable? Which capabilities does it offer? [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=152347#​p152347|4bit VIDs]], [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=120457#​p120457|4bit VIDs]],  +    * How many RJ45 ports are thereMost common are 5 Ports (4 for LAN and 1 for WAN). 
-  **WLAN** / **Wireless:*(Please consult [[doc:​howto:​wireless.overview]]) +    * Is the switch manageable? Which capabilities does it offer? 
-    **how many [[wp>​Wireless network interface controller|WNICs]]**? Common are one or two integrated ​into the SoC or up to four [[wp>​MiniPCI]] ​or [[wp>​MiniPCIe]] ​sockets. +      * [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=152347#​p152347|4bit VIDs]], [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=120457#​p120457|4bit VIDs]],  
-    * Which substandards of the [[wp>​IEEE 802.11]]-family shall the wireless hardware support? Most common ones are IEEE 802.11a, ​IEEE 802.11b, ​IEEE 802.11g, ​IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11s. + 
-    * Frequencies (or bands): +    ​Support for EEE (Energy Efficient Ethernet), Green Ethernet officially[[wp>​IEEE 802.3az]] 
-      * 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz or both? (see e.g. [[wp>​Electromagnetic_interference_at_2.4_GHz|em interference at 2.4GHz]] or [[wp>​Fresnel zone]]) +    ​Support for PoE (Power over Ethernet). non standard "​passive"​ 12V, 24V or standardized [[wp>​IEEE802.3af]],​IEEE[[wp>​802.3at]] 
-      * for the AP to be capable to run in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz at the same time, the router must support //<color green>​dual band simultan</​color>//​ aka //<color green>​DBDC (DualBand-DualConcurrent)</​color>//​. This tag shall help you find suitable devices more quickly: {{tag>​802.11abgn_simultan}} +==== Wireless ==== 
-    * At 2,4GHz you only have **3** distinct channels without overlap, in the 5GHz band there are **19** (EU)/ **13** (USA)/ **??** (Japan) channels without overlapping available +(Please consult ​the [[doc:​howto:​wireless.overview|Wireless Overview]]) 
-    the 2,4GHz band is quite crowded ​by your neighbours, by a [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Documentation/​Bluetooth-coexistence|Bluethooth]] [[wp>​Personal area network|PAN]], ​etc. while the 5GHz is usually unused +  How many [[wp>​Wireless network interface controller|WNICs]]?​ Common are **one** or **two**. These can be : 
-    * Is it relevant to youwhether the WNICs are [[http://​www.linuxwireless.org/​en/​developers/​Documentation/​Glossary?​highlight=%28softmac%29#​SoftMAC|SoftMAC]] or [[http://​www.linuxwireless.org/​en/​developers/​Documentation/​Glossary?​highlight=%28FullMAC%29#​FullMAC|FullMAC]] devices? +    * SoC-integrated: this is commonly called WiSoC 
-    * Do the **current capabilities of the [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Drivers|Linux ​FOSS drivers]]** for your WNICs satisfy your requirements?​ +    * Onboard: ​the wifi chip is the same used in MiniPCI/e cards but soldered on the main PCB 
-    are the [[doc:​hardware:​antennae]] detachable? If so, you could replace them with ones with a better gain, or with (self made) directional antennae +    * [[wp>​MiniPCI]]: the wifi card can be extracted, and replaced by another different MiniPCI model 
-  * **Modem:** +    * [[wp>​MiniPCIe]]: the wifi card can be extracted, and replaced by another different MiniPCIe model 
-    * Common Layer 1 protocols that utilize a [[wp>​Modem]] are: [[wp>​Digital subscriber line|DSL]], [[wp>​DOCSIS]] and [[wp>​Mobile telephony]],​ e.g. [[wp>​3GPP Long Term Evolution|LTE]]. {{tag>ADSL2plus ​VDSL2 DOCSIS Mobile_telephony}} +  * Which substandards of the [[wp>​IEEE 802.11]]-family shall the wireless hardware support? Most common ones are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac ​and 802.11s 
-    * If a device has a built-in modem, is the modem fully supported by OpenWrt? +  * Capabilites:​ 1T1R, 2T2R, 3T3R or 2T3R .
-    * E.g. there are no FOSS drivers for the Broadcom modems in the [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.broadcom.bcm63xx|BCM63xx SoCs]], but there are FOSS drivers for Texas Instruments/​Infineon/​Lantiq Modems in these SoCs: [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.lantiq]]! +  * Frequencies (or bands): 
-  * **Bottlenecks:​** RAM, CPU, Flash +      * 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz or both? (see e.g. [[wp>​Electromagnetic_interference_at_2.4_GHz|Electromagnetic ​interference at 2.4 GHz]] or [[wp>​Fresnel zone]] or [[http://​www.smallnetbuilder.com/​wireless/​wireless-basics/​32316-how-to-buy-a-wireless-router-2014-edition?​showall=&​start=1|Throughput and Range]]) 
-    * the most crucial ​bottleneck ​is the RAM. If you are going to run ''​[[doc:​howto:​voip.asterisk|asterisk]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​umurmur|mumble]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​Direct Connect]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​BitTorrent]]'',​ a [[doc:​howto:​http.overview|web server]] and other stuff, enough RAM will make them run smoothly. Some of them tolerate SWAP pretty good, others do not. FYI: If you already consider soldering (much) ​more RAM, keep in mind that there no DDR1-Modules bigger then 64MiB. Also, the SoCs sometimes only support so much. For example, the Marvell Kirkwood, supports ​only a maximum of 512MiB+      * For the AP to be capable to run in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz at the same time, the router must support //<color green>​dual band simultan</​color>//​ aka //<color green>​DBDC (DualBand-DualConcurrent)</​color>//​. This tag shall help you find suitable devices more quickly: {{tag>​802.11abgn_simultan}} 
-    on seldom occasions ​the computing power of the CPU proves to be a bottleneck. To compare you should have a look at the whole [[:​doc:​hardware:​soc|SoC]], which contains the [[:​doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]. Do not compare raw MHz, e.g. a MIPS 34KE@300MHz is in most scenarios faster then a MIPS 24K@400MHz. +      * At 2,4GHz you only have **3** distinct channels without overlap, in the 5GHz band there are **19** (EU)/ **13** (USA)/ **??** (Japan) channels without overlapping available 
-    * as you can see [[doc:​techref:​flash.layout|here]] with a total of 8MiB flash memory, you can use about 5MiB for own packages. +      The 2.4 GHz band is quite crowded ​with [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Documentation/​Bluetooth-coexistence|Bluetooth]] [[wp>​Personal area network|PAN]],​ while 5GHz is usually unused. 
-  * **Ports:**+  * Is it relevant to you whether the WNICs are [[http://​www.linuxwireless.org/​en/​developers/​Documentation/​Glossary?​highlight=%28softmac%29#​SoftMAC|SoftMAC]] or [[http://​www.linuxwireless.org/​en/​developers/​Documentation/​Glossary?​highlight=%28FullMAC%29#​FullMAC|FullMAC]] devices? 
 +  * Do the current capabilities of the [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Drivers|Existing ​Linux Wireless ​drivers]] for your WNICs satisfy your requirements?​ 
 +  Are the [[doc:​hardware:​antennae]] detachable? If so, you could replace them with ones with a better gain, or with (home-made) directional antennae. 
 +  * [[wp>​FLOSS]] drivers: this is very important for a correct wifi performance/​behavior. For years Broadcom didn't supply enough quality FLOSS drivers (or hardware specifications) and it seems won't ever happen, propietary wl drivers often causes crashes or incorrect behaviors, then avoid Broadcom'​s wifis. As recommended by many people, ​**Atheros or Ralink/​Mediatek** wifis are probably the best choice. 
 + 
 +==== Modem ====  
 +(Please consult the [[doc:​hardware:​Internet access technologies|Internet access technologies]])  
 +  ​* Common Layer 1 protocols that utilize a [[wp>​Modem]] are: [[wp>​Digital subscriber line|DSL]], [[wp>​DOCSIS]] and [[wp>​Mobile telephony]],​ e.g. [[wp>​3GPP Long Term Evolution|LTE]]. {{tag>ADSL2+ ​VDSL2 DOCSIS Mobile_telephony}} 
 +  * If a device has a built-in modem, is the modem fully supported by OpenWrt? 
 +  * E.g. there are no FOSS drivers for the Broadcom modems in the [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.broadcom.bcm63xx|BCM63xx SoCs]], but there are FOSS drivers for Texas Instruments/​Infineon/​Lantiq Modems in these SoCs: [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.lantiq]]! 
 + 
 +==== Processors and Memory ====  
 +  * The most crucial ​decision ​is your choice of RAM. If you are going to run ''​[[doc:​howto:​voip.asterisk|asterisk]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​umurmur|mumble]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​Direct Connect]]'',​ ''​[[doc:​howto:​BitTorrent]]'',​ a [[doc:​howto:​http.overview|web server]] and other stuff, enough RAM will make them run smoothly. Some of them tolerate SWAP pretty good, others do not. FYI: If you are considering adding ​more RAM, keep in mind that there are no DDR1-Modules bigger then 64MB. Also, the SoC sometimes only support so much. For example, the Marvell Kirkwood, supports a maximum of 512MB
 +  Occasionally ​the computing power of the CPU proves to be a bottleneck. To compare you should have a look at the [[:​doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]] included on with [[:​doc:​hardware:​soc|SoC]]. Do not compare raw MHz, e.g. a MIPS 34KE@300MHz is in most scenarios faster then a MIPS 24K@400MHz. 
 +    * as you can see by referring to the [[doc:​techref:​flash.layout|flash layout]] with a total of 8MiB flash memory, you can use about 5MiB for own packages. 
 + 
 +==== Cryptography ==== 
 +  * [[wp>​Hardware_random_number_generator|TRNG]]Most devices use a software random number generator. Only few are equiped with a true hardware random number generator, see [[http://​wiki.openwrt.org/​tag/​trng?​do=showtag&​tag=TRNG|TRNG]] tag 
 +  ​[[doc/​hardware/​cryptographic.hardware.accelerators|Cryptographic Hardware Accelerators]]:​ routers equiped with these accelerators may bring you better speed transfers when you plan to use encrypted connections such as OpenVPN. 
 + 
 +==== Ports ====
     * USB: connect a hub, harddiscs, ssds, usb sticks, UMTS modems, cameras, sound cards, etc. ->​[[doc:​howto:​usb.overview]]     * USB: connect a hub, harddiscs, ssds, usb sticks, UMTS modems, cameras, sound cards, etc. ->​[[doc:​howto:​usb.overview]]
     * Serial: very useful for developers, limited uses for end users ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.serial]]     * Serial: very useful for developers, limited uses for end users ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.serial]]
     * JTAG: very useful for developers and also for end users  ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.JTAG]]     * JTAG: very useful for developers and also for end users  ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.JTAG]]
-  ​**Buttons:​** +    ​* [[wp>TAE connector|TAE sockets]]: a telephone connector used mosly in Germany
-    * buttons: with a button you can boot your device into //[[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe|OpenWrt Failsafe]]//, without one, this is not possible! Also, after boot up, you can [[doc:howto:​hardware.button|attach ​function]] to it, like start/stop WLAN, reconnect DSL, start/stop a daemon, mount/​unmount partitions, ​ etc. +
-  * **Other**, e.g. +
-    * the [[toh/​redwave/​rw2458n|Redwave RW2458N]] is small device and offers a MiniPCIe slot +
-    * the [[toh/​alfa.network/​hornet-ub|ALFA Network Hornet-UB]] is small device and supports 12V Passive [[wp>​Power over Ethernet|PoE (Power over Ethernet)]] +
-    * the [[toh/​asus/​wl-330n|ASUS WL-330N]] is also just small+
  
 +==== Buttons ====
 +    * You can boot your device into //​[[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe|OpenWrt Failsafe]]//​ with a reset button, without one, this is only possible through connection over serial! Also, after boot up, you can [[doc:​howto:​hardware.button|attach functions]] to the buttons, like start/stop WLAN, reconnect DSL, start/stop a daemon, mount/​unmount partitions, ​ etc.
  
-===== Price comparison for currently ​available and purchasable hardware =====+==== Platform / Architecture ==== 
 + 
 +OpenWrt targets traditional routers. These run on ARM or MIPS CPUs. 
 +However running inside a VM or on common x86 Hardware is also possible. 
 +While most consumer Hardware can lack Ethernet ports, Hardware for ''​IPC''​ (Industrial PC) or ''​server mainboards''​ 
 +are built and advertised for 24/7 operation. 
 +Other ''​embedded''​ devices or ''​SBC''​ ([[wp>​Single-board_computer]]) may be viable alternatives. 
 + 
 +==== Certified Operation Modes ==== 
 + 
 +''​Temperature''​ 
 +Most hardware is constructed to run at a temperature range from 0-40°C (Operating Temperature). 
 +This is appropriate for most indoor use cases. 
 +However - increased temperature can speed up the aging of electric components. 
 +Industrial PC, Server Hardware or outdoor equiment may be certified and constructed to extended temperature ranges: 
 +  * 0-70°C (server, IPC) 
 +  * -30-75°C (outdoor AP) 
 + 
 +''​Environment''​ 
 + 
 +Some plastics used in wiring or enclosures are problematic in outdoor operations under direct sunlight. 
 +Specialized UV resistant outdoor cabling and enclosures exist. 
 +Shielding from water (rain) and/or dust is certified with an [[wp>​IP_Code]]. 
 + 
 +==== Examples ==== 
 +    * particularly small devices are e.g. the [[toh/​asus/​wl-330n|ASUS WL-330N]], the [[toh/​redwave/​rw2458n|Redwave RW2458N]] (has a MiniPCIe slot), or the [[toh/​alfa.network/​hornet-ub|ALFA Network Hornet-UB]] (supports 12V Passive [[wp>​Power over Ethernet|PoE (Power over Ethernet)]]),​  
 +    * devices with an integrated [[wp>​Rechargeable battery]] are e.g. the [[toh/​tp-link/​tl-mr13u|TP-Link TL-MR13U]] 
 +    * devices with more then the usual five RJ-45 Ports are e.g.  
 +    * Note that many but not all device pages are tagged. Please see if the [[meta/​tags|Tags]] help you with your search. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Price comparison for currently purchasable hardware =====
 Since Christmas 2011, geizhals offers a filter for devices supported by OpenWrt: Since Christmas 2011, geizhals offers a filter for devices supported by OpenWrt:
   * [[http://​geizhals.at/?​cat=wlanrout&​sort=p&​xf=758_OpenWrt#​xf_top|Preisvergleich AT: WLAN-Router]]   * [[http://​geizhals.at/?​cat=wlanrout&​sort=p&​xf=758_OpenWrt#​xf_top|Preisvergleich AT: WLAN-Router]]
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 **''​Note_2:''​** Do not expect the filter to be perfectly up-to-date, since it is updated manually conforming to the OpenWrt ToH! **''​Note_2:''​** Do not expect the filter to be perfectly up-to-date, since it is updated manually conforming to the OpenWrt ToH!
  
-===== Developement =====+==== United States ​==== 
 +Amazon also lets you //search// for OpenWrt, but you cannot filter for OpenWrt support: 
 +  * [[http://​amzn.to/​1mONYr0|Price comparison USA: OpenWrt routers]] 
 + 
 +**''​Note_1:''​** The filter is not 100% perfect, be sure to double check a router before buying \\ 
 + 
  
-===== Popular Devices / Developement ===== 
-Maybe because of the matured FOSS wireless drivers, maybe for completely different reasons, some devices are much more popular than others. There is more outlay concerning them in the Forum and, since they have more users, their Wiki-Pages are a bit more exhaustive. 
  
 ===== Tags ===== ===== Tags =====
 You could use the [[meta:​tags]] to quickly find the devices with your desired features. Sadly :-( not many devices have been tagged so far. You could use the [[meta:​tags]] to quickly find the devices with your desired features. Sadly :-( not many devices have been tagged so far.
  
-{{tag>​GigabitEthernet DetachableAntenna USB2.0 USB 128RAM 64RAM 32Flash 16Flash 8Flash 802.11abgn 802.11abgn_simultan}}+  * {{tag>​GigabitEthernet}}  
 +  * {{tag>DetachableAntenna}}  
 +  * {{tag>USB2.0 USB 2USB 3USB 4USB}} 
 +  * {{tag>​512RAM 256RAM ​128RAM 64RAM}} 
 +  * {{tag>​gt32Flash ​32Flash 16Flash 8Flash}} 
 +  * {{tag>802.11abgn 802.11abgn_simultan ​802.11ac}} 
 +  * {{tag>​rechargeable_battery}} 
 +  * {{tag>​portable_router}} 
 +  * {{tag>​ip_camera}} 
 +  * {{tag>​TRNG crypto}}
toh/buyerguide.1352732190.txt.bz2 · Last modified: 2012/11/12 15:56 by uvray313