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toh:buyerguide [2013/05/07 12:22]
icheyne changed soc wikipedia link to the internal wiki page, which is more relevant
toh:buyerguide [2014/10/26 23:37] (current)
pablog
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 ===== Features ===== ===== Features =====
 ==== Bootloader ==== ==== Bootloader ====
-    * the [[doc:​techref:​bootloader]] should not only be under a [[wp>​Free_and_open-source_software|FOSS]] license, but preferably under the GPL, so that they are forced to release the complete source code+    * the [[doc:​techref:​bootloader]] should not only be under a [[wp>​Free_and_open-source_software|FOSS]] license, but preferably under the GPL, so that the OEM is forced to release the complete source code
     * some bootloaders make installing OpenWrt unnecessarily complicated or even impossible!     * some bootloaders make installing OpenWrt unnecessarily complicated or even impossible!
     * some bootloaders allow you to //boot from a USB device// or //Boot over Ethernet// but many do not     * some bootloaders allow you to //boot from a USB device// or //Boot over Ethernet// but many do not
  
 ==== LAN ==== ==== LAN ====
-    * **How many [[wp>​Network interface controller|NICs]]**?​ Common are one or two (//Ethernet [[wp>​Media access control|MAC]]-blocks ​integrated into the [[doc/​hardware/​SoC]], which are connected over a [[wp>​Media Independent Interface|xMII]] to a [[wp>PHY (chip)]] ​on the PCB.//) +    * **How many [[wp>​Network interface controller|NICs]]** ​does the [[wp>​System on a chip]] incorporate? Common are **one** or **two**, very seldom more.\\ These are implemented as [[doc/hardware/SoC]]-integrated ​Ethernet-[[wp>​Media access control|MAC]]-blocks,​ which are each connected over a [[wp>​Media Independent Interface|xMII]] to a distinct ​[[wp>PHY (chip)]].\\ **''​Note:''​** Do not confuse ​the number of Ports with the number of NICs
-    * Which Layer 1 standard does the NIC/NICs support? BASE100-TX (100MBit/s, [[wp>​Fast Ethernet]]) or BASE1000-T (1000MBit/​s,​ [[wp>​Gigabit Ethernet]])?​ +    * Which Ethernet-Layer-1 standard does the NIC/NICs support?\\ **BASE100-TX** (i.e. 100MBit/s, [[wp>​Fast Ethernet]]) or\\ **BASE1000-T** (i.e. 1000MBit/s, [[wp>​Gigabit Ethernet]])?​ 
-    * Is there an integrated ​ethernet ​switch? +    * Is there an **integrated ​Ethernet ​switch**
-    * Which Layer 1 standard does the integrated switch support? +    * Which Ethernet-Layer-1 standard does the integrated switch support? ​(BASE-100TX or BASE1000-T) 
-    * How many ports does it have+    * How many RJ45 ports are thereMost common are 5 Ports (4 for LAN and 1 for WAN). 
-    * Is the switch manageable? Which capabilities does it offer? ​+    * Is the switch manageable? Which capabilities does it offer? 
 +      * [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=152347#​p152347|4bit VIDs]], [[https://​forum.openwrt.org/​viewtopic.php?​pid=120457#​p120457|4bit VIDs]], ​
  
 ==== Wireless ==== ==== Wireless ====
 (Please consult the [[doc:​howto:​wireless.overview|Wireless Overview]]) (Please consult the [[doc:​howto:​wireless.overview|Wireless Overview]])
-  * How many [[wp>​Wireless network interface controller|WNICs]]?​ Common are one or two integrated ​into the SoC or up to four [[wp>​MiniPCI]] ​or [[wp>​MiniPCIe]] ​sockets. +  * How many [[wp>​Wireless network interface controller|WNICs]]?​ Common are **one** or **two**. These can be : 
-  * Which substandards of the [[wp>​IEEE 802.11]]-family shall the wireless hardware support? Most common ones are IEEE 802.11a, ​IEEE 802.11b, ​IEEE 802.11g, ​IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11s.+    * SoC-integrated: this is commonly called WiSoC 
 +    * Onboard: ​the wifi chip is the same used in MiniPCI/e cards but soldered on the main PCB 
 +    * [[wp>​MiniPCI]]: the wifi card can be extracted, and replaced by another different MiniPCI model 
 +    * [[wp>​MiniPCIe]]: the wifi card can be extracted, and replaced by another different MiniPCIe model 
 +  * Which substandards of the [[wp>​IEEE 802.11]]-family shall the wireless hardware support? Most common ones are 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11ac ​and 802.11s 
 +  * Capabilites:​ 1T1R, 2T2R, 3T3R or 2T3R ..
   * Frequencies (or bands):   * Frequencies (or bands):
-      * 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz or both? (see e.g. [[wp>​Electromagnetic_interference_at_2.4_GHz|Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz]] or [[wp>​Fresnel zone]])+      * 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz or both? (see e.g. [[wp>​Electromagnetic_interference_at_2.4_GHz|Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz]] or [[wp>​Fresnel zone]] or [[http://​www.smallnetbuilder.com/​wireless/​wireless-basics/​32316-how-to-buy-a-wireless-router-2014-edition?​showall=&​start=1|Throughput and Range]])
       * For the AP to be capable to run in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz at the same time, the router must support //<color green>​dual band simultan</​color>//​ aka //<color green>​DBDC (DualBand-DualConcurrent)</​color>//​. This tag shall help you find suitable devices more quickly: {{tag>​802.11abgn_simultan}}       * For the AP to be capable to run in 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz at the same time, the router must support //<color green>​dual band simultan</​color>//​ aka //<color green>​DBDC (DualBand-DualConcurrent)</​color>//​. This tag shall help you find suitable devices more quickly: {{tag>​802.11abgn_simultan}}
       * At 2,4GHz you only have **3** distinct channels without overlap, in the 5GHz band there are **19** (EU)/ **13** (USA)/ **??** (Japan) channels without overlapping available       * At 2,4GHz you only have **3** distinct channels without overlap, in the 5GHz band there are **19** (EU)/ **13** (USA)/ **??** (Japan) channels without overlapping available
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   * Do the current capabilities of the [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Drivers|Existing Linux Wireless drivers]] for your WNICs satisfy your requirements?​   * Do the current capabilities of the [[http://​wireless.kernel.org/​en/​users/​Drivers|Existing Linux Wireless drivers]] for your WNICs satisfy your requirements?​
   * Are the [[doc:​hardware:​antennae]] detachable? If so, you could replace them with ones with a better gain, or with (home-made) directional antennae.   * Are the [[doc:​hardware:​antennae]] detachable? If so, you could replace them with ones with a better gain, or with (home-made) directional antennae.
 +  * [[wp>​FLOSS]] drivers: this is very important for a correct wifi performance/​behavior. For years Broadcom didn't supply enough quality FLOSS drivers (or hardware specifications) and it seems won't ever happen, propietary wl drivers often causes crashes or incorrect behaviors, then avoid Broadcom'​s wifis. As recommended by many people, **Atheros or Ralink** wifis are probably the best choice.
  
 ==== Modem ====  ==== Modem ==== 
-  ​* Common Layer 1 protocols that utilize a [[wp>​Modem]] are: [[wp>​Digital subscriber line|DSL]], [[wp>​DOCSIS]] and [[wp>​Mobile telephony]],​ e.g. [[wp>​3GPP Long Term Evolution|LTE]]. {{tag>ADSL2plus ​VDSL2 DOCSIS Mobile_telephony}}+(Please consult the [[doc:​hardware:​Internet access technologies|Internet access technologies]])  
 +  ​* Common Layer 1 protocols that utilize a [[wp>​Modem]] are: [[wp>​Digital subscriber line|DSL]], [[wp>​DOCSIS]] and [[wp>​Mobile telephony]],​ e.g. [[wp>​3GPP Long Term Evolution|LTE]]. {{tag>ADSL2+ ​VDSL2 DOCSIS Mobile_telephony}}
   * If a device has a built-in modem, is the modem fully supported by OpenWrt?   * If a device has a built-in modem, is the modem fully supported by OpenWrt?
   * E.g. there are no FOSS drivers for the Broadcom modems in the [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.broadcom.bcm63xx|BCM63xx SoCs]], but there are FOSS drivers for Texas Instruments/​Infineon/​Lantiq Modems in these SoCs: [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.lantiq]]!   * E.g. there are no FOSS drivers for the Broadcom modems in the [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.broadcom.bcm63xx|BCM63xx SoCs]], but there are FOSS drivers for Texas Instruments/​Infineon/​Lantiq Modems in these SoCs: [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.lantiq]]!
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   * Occasionally the computing power of the CPU proves to be a bottleneck. To compare you should have a look at the [[:​doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]] included on with [[:​doc:​hardware:​soc|SoC]]. Do not compare raw MHz, e.g. a MIPS 34KE@300MHz is in most scenarios faster then a MIPS 24K@400MHz.   * Occasionally the computing power of the CPU proves to be a bottleneck. To compare you should have a look at the [[:​doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]] included on with [[:​doc:​hardware:​soc|SoC]]. Do not compare raw MHz, e.g. a MIPS 34KE@300MHz is in most scenarios faster then a MIPS 24K@400MHz.
     * as you can see by referring to the [[doc:​techref:​flash.layout|flash layout]] with a total of 8MiB flash memory, you can use about 5MiB for own packages.     * as you can see by referring to the [[doc:​techref:​flash.layout|flash layout]] with a total of 8MiB flash memory, you can use about 5MiB for own packages.
 +
 +==== Cryptography ====
 +  * [[wp>​Hardware_random_number_generator|TRNG]]:​ Most devices use a software random number generator. Only few are equiped with a true hardware random number generator, see [[http://​wiki.openwrt.org/​tag/​trng?​do=showtag&​tag=TRNG|TRNG]] tag
 +  * [[doc/​hardware/​cryptographic.hardware.accelerators|Cryptographic Hardware Accelerators]]:​ routers equiped with these accelerators may bring you better speed transfers when you plan to use encrypted connections such as OpenVPN.
  
 ==== Ports ==== ==== Ports ====
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     * Serial: very useful for developers, limited uses for end users ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.serial]]     * Serial: very useful for developers, limited uses for end users ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.serial]]
     * JTAG: very useful for developers and also for end users  ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.JTAG]]     * JTAG: very useful for developers and also for end users  ->​[[doc:​hardware:​port.JTAG]]
 +    * [[wp>TAE connector|TAE sockets]]: a telephone connector used mosly in Germany
 +
 ==== Buttons ==== ==== Buttons ====
-    * You can boot your device into //​[[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe|OpenWrt Failsafe]]//​ with a reset button, without one, this is not possible! Also, after boot up, you can [[doc:​howto:​hardware.button|attach functions]] to the buttons, like start/stop WLAN, reconnect DSL, start/stop a daemon, mount/​unmount partitions, ​ etc.+    * You can boot your device into //​[[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe|OpenWrt Failsafe]]//​ with a reset button, without one, this is only possible ​through connection over serial! Also, after boot up, you can [[doc:​howto:​hardware.button|attach functions]] to the buttons, like start/stop WLAN, reconnect DSL, start/stop a daemon, mount/​unmount partitions, ​ etc. 
 + 
 +==== Examples ==== 
 +    * particularly small devices are e.g. the [[toh/​asus/​wl-330n|ASUS WL-330N]], the [[toh/​redwave/​rw2458n|Redwave RW2458N]] (has a MiniPCIe slot), or the [[toh/​alfa.network/​hornet-ub|ALFA Network Hornet-UB]] (supports 12V Passive [[wp>​Power over Ethernet|PoE (Power over Ethernet)]]),​  
 +    * devices with an integrated [[wp>​Rechargeable battery]] are e.g. the [[toh/​tp-link/​tl-mr13u|TP-Link TL-MR13U]] 
 +    * devices with more then the usual five RJ-45 Ports are e.g.  
 +    * Note that many but not all device pages are tagged. Please see if the [[meta/​tags|Tags]] help you with your search. 
 + 
 + 
 +===== Price comparison for currently purchasable hardware ===== 
 +Since Christmas 2011, geizhals offers a filter for devices supported by OpenWrt: 
 +  * [[http://​geizhals.at/?​cat=wlanrout&​sort=p&​xf=758_OpenWrt#​xf_top|Preisvergleich AT: WLAN-Router]] 
 +  * [[http://​geizhals.de/?​cat=wlanrout&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Preisvergleich DE: WLAN-Router]] 
 +  * [[http://​cenowarka.pl/?​cat=wlanrout&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Porównanie cen PL: WLAN-Router]] 
 +  * [[http://​skinflint.co.uk/?​cat=wlanrout&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Price comparison UK: WLAN-Router]] 
 + 
 +  * [[http://​geizhals.at/?​cat=wlanroutmod&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Preisvergleich AT: WLAN-Router mit Modem]] 
 +  * [[http://​geizhals.de/?​cat=wlanroutmod&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Preisvergleich DE: WLAN-Router mit Modem]] 
 +  * [[http://​cenowarka.pl/?​cat=wlanroutmod&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Porównanie cen PL: Routery WLAN z modemem]] 
 +  * [[http://​skinflint.co.uk/?​cat=wlanroutmod&​xf=758_OpenWrt&​sort=p|Price comparison UK: WLAN Router with Modem]] 
 + 
 +**''​Note_1:''​** You can safely ignore the filters for "​3G-Router"​ and "​BitTorrent-Client",​ since they apply to the OEM firmware only. Once you installed OpenWrt, the full software repository stands to your disposal. \\ 
 +**''​Note_2:''​** Do not expect the filter to be perfectly up-to-date, since it is updated manually conforming to the OpenWrt ToH! 
 + 
 +==== United States ==== 
 +Amazon also lets you //search// for OpenWrt, but you cannot filter for OpenWrt support: 
 +  * [[http://​amzn.to/​1mONYr0|Price comparison USA: OpenWrt routers]]
  
-==== Other ==== +**''​Note_1:''​** The filter ​is not 100% perfect, be sure to double check a router before buying \\
-    ​the [[toh/​redwave/​rw2458n|Redwave RW2458N]] is small device and offers a MiniPCIe slot +
-    ​the [[toh/​alfa.network/​hornet-ub|ALFA Network Hornet-UB]] is small device and supports 12V Passive [[wp>​Power over Ethernet|PoE (Power over Ethernet)]] +
-    ​the [[toh/​asus/​wl-330n|ASUS WL-330N]] ​is also just small+
  
  
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 You could use the [[meta:​tags]] to quickly find the devices with your desired features. Sadly :-( not many devices have been tagged so far. You could use the [[meta:​tags]] to quickly find the devices with your desired features. Sadly :-( not many devices have been tagged so far.
  
-{{tag>​GigabitEthernet DetachableAntenna USB2.0 USB 128RAM 64RAM 32Flash 16Flash 8Flash 802.11abgn 802.11abgn_simultan}}+  * {{tag>​GigabitEthernet}}  
 +  * {{tag>DetachableAntenna}}  
 +  * {{tag>USB2.0 USB 2USB 3USB 4USB}} 
 +  * {{tag>​512RAM 256RAM ​128RAM 64RAM}} 
 +  * {{tag>​gt32Flash ​32Flash 16Flash 8Flash}} 
 +  * {{tag>802.11abgn 802.11abgn_simultan ​802.11ac}} 
 +  * {{tag>​rechargeable_battery}} 
 +  * {{tag>​portable_router}} 
 +  * {{tag>​ip_camera}} 
 +  * {{tag>​TRNG crypto}}
toh/buyerguide.1367922153.txt.bz2 · Last modified: 2013/05/07 12:22 by icheyne