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toh:linksys:wag160n [2012/11/08 11:52]
toh:linksys:wag160n [2017/05/30 15:01] (current)
tmomas ↷ Links adapted because of a move operation
Line 1: Line 1:
 +====== Linksys WAG160N ======
 +**<color red>The WAG160N is not officially supported but images are available for WAG160N v1 (without DSL support).</​color>​**
 +Barrier Breaker: https://​​viewtopic.php?​id=50852
 + The Linksys [[http://​​en-eu/​support/​gateways/​WAG160N|WAG160N]] is an ADSL gateway with wireless acccess point integrated.
 + The source code tarball is available from the [[http://​​en-eu/​gplcodecenter?​gplsku=#​WAG160N|Linksys GPL Code Center]]:\\
 + ​[[http://​​downloads/​wag160n_v1.00.15_eu_annexA.tar,​0.gz|WAG160N 1.00.15 Annex A]]\\
 + ​[[http://​​downloads/​wag160n_v1.00.15_eu_annexB.tar,​0.gz|WAG160N 1.00.15 Annex B]]
 +===== Supported Versions =====
 +^ Version/​Model ^ wifi ^ Supported ^
 +| [[#​v1.hardware|WAG160Nv1]] | AR5416 | [[https://​​viewtopic.php?​id=19601|WIP]] |
 +| [[#​v2.hardware|WAG160Nv2]] | AR9223 | [[https://​​viewtopic.php?​id=27801|WIP]] |
 +===== Hardware =====
 +==== Info v1 ====
 +| **[[wp>​Instruction set|Architecture]]:​** ​ | [[wp>​MIPS architecture|MIPS]] ​      |
 +| **Vendor:​** ​                              | [[wp>​Broadcom]] ​                    |
 +| **[[doc:​techref:​Bootloader]]:​** ​          | [[doc:​techref:​bootloader:​CFE|CFE]] ​ |
 +| **Board Id:**                             | 96358GW ​                            |
 +| **[[doc:​hardware:​soc|System-On-Chip]]:​** ​ | Broadcom BCM6358SKFBG |
 +| **[[doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]/​Speed** ​       | BMIPS4350 V1.0 / 300 Mhz  [[doc:​hardware:​soc:​soc.broadcom.bcm63xx:​smp|BMIPS Dual Core]] |
 +| **Flash-Chip:​** ​ | MX29LV320AB ​ |
 +| **Flash size:​** ​ | 4MB          |
 +| **RAM-Chip:​** ​   | EtronTech EM6AA160TS-5G / DDR-400 ​  |
 +| **RAM size:​** ​   | 32MB            |
 +| **Wireless:​** ​   | Atheros AR5416 ​ |
 +| **Ethernet:​** ​   | Broadcom ​ {{:​media:​datasheets:​bcm5325_pinout.png?​linkonly|BCM5325}} w/ vlan support [[doc:​uci:​network#​swconfig]] |
 +| **USB:​** ​        | No               |
 +| **Serial:​** ​     | [[#​Serial|Yes]] ​ |
 +| **JTAG:​** ​       | ?                |
 +==== v2 Hardware ====
 +The PCB is a bit redesigned. Most noticeable points are the presence of an actual power button (top left in photos), and that J10 is labeled (anyway, I've not been able to get anything from there neither with 115200 8N1 nor with other speeds). There is also a plastic sheet covering the bottom of the PCB, maybe to help heat dissipation.
 +Not so noticeable is the fact that the LED corresponding to port1 is doubled, being similar to the power led. Also the wireless seems different, as chip is labelled as AR9223-AC1A.
 +Tftp upload of firmware seems not straightforward. According to information found on the linksys forums, requires the "​password enabled"​ tftp utility from linksys.
 +See [[.:​wag160nv2|this page]] for details and pictures of the WAG160Nv2.
 +==== LEDs & Buttons ====
 +^ LED        ^ Color   ^ GPIO   ^
 +| Internet ​  | green   | 0      |
 +| Internet ​  | red     | 1      |
 +| Power      | red     | 3      |
 +| Power      | green   | 4      |
 +| DSL        | green   | 28     |
 +| WPS        | green   | 36     |
 +| Wireless ​  | green   | 37     |
 +^ Button ​  ^ GPIO   ^
 +| WPS      | 34     |
 +==== Opening the case ====
 +Remove the four screws on the base of the case. The case is then secured by one small and one large gray clip (from rear to front) on each side of the case. At the front of the case, there are two large black clips.
 +Prise the top of the router from the bottom using a small screwdriver - I found this easier by starting at the front. ​ It's not a nice process!
 +Even if all of the gray clips are broken or removed, the case is perfectly adequately sealed using only the front black clips and the four screws. This also makes the case far easier to open. I found this easiest to do by working around the case from the back with a medium-sized screwdriver,​ being careful not to be upsetting the antennas and wires which are located around the edges of the case. Once the top has been removed, using pliers, the broken or remaining gray clips can be tidied up by twisting off what remains of them.
 +==== Photos ====
 +^ Top of PCB ^ Bottom of PCB (JTAG encircled) ^
 +| {{ media:​linksys:​wag160n:​wag160n_top.jpg?​400x350 }} | {{ media:​linksys:​wag160n:​wag160n_bottom.jpg?​400x350 }} |
 +==== Serial ====
 +Serial console can be attached to J10 which is located at the bottom right of the board (when looking at the unit from the front). ​ On my unit; the J10 label was obscured by a sticky pad.
 +^ Serial Port (J10) ^
 +| {{ media:​linksys:​wag160n:​wag160n_j10.jpg?​400x350 }} |
 +There is no connector soldered to the board. If you want to add one, it needs to be of pitch 2.5mm.
 +Legend (in arrow direction):
 +1  GND
 +2  Tx
 +3  VCC (3,3V)
 +4  RX
 +The settings for the serial console are "​115200 bauds, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (115200 8N1)", with hardware and software flow control both disabled.
 +**NOTE:** You cannot plug directly those pins to your pc serial port. You need a RS232-TTL level adapter (or just set the jumper on your USB->​Serial-converter to 3.3V if it provides that option). See [[doc:​hardware:​port.serial|Serial Console]]
 +==== Flashing - Only v1! ====
 +Read on if you're sure you have the WAG160N **<color red>​V1</​color>​**. You can get the firmware [[https://​​viewtopic.php?​id=50852|here - Barrier Breaker, r40862]].
 +You can find an older version from Virus here:
 +[[http://​​d/​76956273/​850385/​OpenWrt%20attitude%20adjustment.7z|here - Attitude Adjustment, r34073]].
 +You may find more information on the [[https://​​viewtopic.php?​id=19601| related wag160n_v1 forum thread]].
 +===Activating the flash mode===
 +To activate the flash mode you need to stop the boot. You have two solutions :
 +//**1. Staple method**//
 +When you power the modem, you have 1s to activate the Recovery Mode. The trick is to rub a stapple or a wire between the pin 4 (in red) and the pin 1 (in orange) while booting. Do not solder ​ anything, the goal is not to generate a clean signal but to generate noise ! 
 +The easiest way is to hold the stapple between ​ pin 1 and 4 (do not shortcut pin 1 and 3) and to rub it slightly when it boots. It should activate the recovery mode almost everytime. If it doesn'​t work you can also rub the stapple between pin 4 (in red) and pin 3 (+3.3V, next to pin 4).
 +If you succeed, the power LED goes off and the Ethernet LED should be blinking. If the power LED is still on 5s after you plugged the router, it failed. Just unplug the modem and try again. If the ethernet light is off verify you plugged the ethernet cable properly.
 +//**2. Serial port method**//
 +You can also solder a LVTTL adapter to the board to use the serial port.
 +You can use minicom, putty or hyperterminal for this part.
 +You need to connect with the following parameters: 115200 bauds, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (115200 8N1), with hardware and software flow control both disabled.
 +Plug the modem, when the following message is displayed:
 +<​code>​*** Press any key to stop auto run (1 seconds) *** </​code>​
 +Push any key. It will stop the boot.
 +Then you have two methods to flash the firmware:
 +===Flashing the firmware===
 +To flash the firmware you can use the CFE Web Interface (easier). If you used the staple method this is the only solution. If you are connected to serial, you can also use a TFTP server.
 +//**1. CFE Web Interface**//​
 +Assign to your computer with a subnet mask of
 +Go to with your browser and upload the firmware through the "​Update Software"​ web interface.
 +The router will reboot by itself after 30s and you're done.
 +//**2. TFTP Method: (only if you used serial connection)**//​
 +Setup a tftpd server e.g.
 +<​code>​sudo apt-get install tftpd-hpa tftp</​code>​
 +make sure it works by putting some file in /​var/​lib/​tftpboot e.g.
 +<​code>​sudo sh -c 'echo "​hello"​ > /​var/​lib/​tftpboot/​test'</​code>​
 +<​code>​tftp localhost
 +get test</​code>​
 +if you get sth. like
 +<​code>​Received 7 bytes in 0.0 seconds</​code>​
 +Copy your downloaded/​built openwrt image to to /​var/​lib/​tftpboot.
 +<​code>​sudo cp openwrt-WAG160Nv1-squashfs-cfe-attitude-adjustment-beta-2.bin /​var/​lib/​tftpboot/​bcm963xx_fs_kernel</​code>​
 +File name needs to be bcm963xx_fs_kernel because that's what the wag160n CFE expects.
 +Connect to your router with an ethernet cable.
 +Assign to your computer with a subnet mask of - because that's what the wag160n will try pull the boot image from ( as gateway).
 +If you followed the activated the flash mode by serial port, the following message should be displayed in your terminal:
 +<​code>​CFE>​ </​code>​
 +**<color red>Make sure again that your router is a WAG160N V1</​color>​**
 +Press f
 +The flash should begin:
 +Loading​bcm963xx_fs_kernel ...                                    ​
 +Finished loading 2752516 bytes
 +Flashing root file system and kernel at 0xbfc10000: ............................
 +                                                                                                                                                              ​
 +*** Image flash done *** !                                                      ​
 +Resetting board...
 +==== JTAG ====
 +^ JTAG Port (J1) ^
 +| {{ media:​linksys:​wag160n:​wag160n_j1.jpg?​400x350 }} |
 +===== Bootlogs =====
 +==== OEM bootlog ====
 +<WRAP bootlog>
 +<​nowiki>​CFE version 1.0.37-5.4 for BCM96358 (32bit,​SP,​BE)
 +Build Date: å›› ​ 1月 10 19:25:21 CST 2008 (root@9DavidZhang2)
 +Copyright (C) 2000-2005 Broadcom Corporation.
 +Boot Address 0xbfc00000
 +Initializing Arena.
 +Initializing Devices.
 +Parallel flash device: name MX29LV320AB,​ id 0x22a8, size 4096KB
 +CPU type 0x2A010: 300MHz, Bus: 133MHz, Ref: 64MHz
 +Total memory: 33554432 bytes (32MB)
 +Total memory used by CFE:  0x80401000 - 0x80528800 (1210368)
 +Initialized Data:          0x8041E550 - 0x8041FF60 (6672)
 +BSS Area:                  0x8041FF60 - 0x80426800 (26784)
 +Local Heap:                0x80426800 - 0x80526800 (1048576)
 +Stack Area:                0x80526800 - 0x80528800 (8192)
 +Text (code) segment: ​      ​0x80401000 - 0x8041E544 (120132)
 +Boot area (physical): ​     0x00529000 - 0x00569000
 +Relocation Factor: ​        ​I:​00000000 - D:00000000
 +Board IP address ​                 :  ​
 +Host IP address ​                  :  ​
 +Gateway IP address ​               :   
 +Run from flash/host (f/h)         : f  ​
 +Default host run file name        : vmlinux  ​
 +Default host flash file name      : bcm963xx_fs_kernel  ​
 +Boot delay (0-9 seconds) ​         : 1  ​
 +Board Id Name                     : 96358GW  ​
 +Psi size in KB                    : 24
 +Number of MAC Addresses (1-32) ​   : 10  ​
 +Base MAC Address ​                 : 00:​1d:​7e:​b3:​9b:​52  ​
 +Ethernet PHY Type                 : Internal
 +Memory size in MB                 : 32
 +CMT Thread Number ​                : 0
 +*** Press any key to stop auto run (1 seconds) ***</​nowiki>​
 +==== OpenWrt bootlog ====
 +<WRAP bootlog>
 +<​nowiki>​Linux version (virus@Virion) (gcc version 4.3.3 (GCC) ) #18 Mon Mar 15 16:16:55 CET 2010
 +Detected Broadcom 0x6358 CPU revision a1
 +CPU frequency is 300 MHz
 +32MB of RAM installed
 +registering 40 GPIOs
 +board_bcm963xx:​ CFE version: 1.0.37-5.4
 +bootconsole [early0] enabled
 +CPU revision is: 0002a010 (Broadcom BCM6358)
 +board_bcm963xx:​ board name: 96358GW
 +Determined physical RAM map:
 + ​memory:​ 02000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
 +Initrd not found or empty - disabling initrd
 +Zone PFN ranges:
 +  Normal ​  ​0x00000000 -> 0x00002000
 +Movable zone start PFN for each node
 +early_node_map[1] active PFN ranges
 +    0: 0x00000000 -> 0x00002000
 +On node 0 totalpages: 8192
 +free_area_init_node:​ node 0, pgdat 8026b500, node_mem_map 81000000
 +  Normal zone: 64 pages used for memmap
 +  Normal zone: 0 pages reserved
 +  Normal zone: 8128 pages, LIFO batch:0
 +Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 8128
 +Kernel command line: root=/​dev/​mtdblock2 rootfstype=squashfs,​jffs2 noinitrd console=ttyS0,​115200
 +PID hash table entries: 128 (order: -3, 512 bytes)
 +Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
 +Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
 +Primary instruction cache 32kB, VIPT, 2-way, linesize 16 bytes.
 +Primary data cache 16kB, 2-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 16 bytes
 +Memory: 29724k/​32768k available (2050k kernel code, 3044k reserved, 363k data, 136k init, 0k highmem)
 +Hierarchical RCU implementation.
 +Calibrating delay loop... 299.00 BogoMIPS (lpj=598016)
 +Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
 +NET: Registered protocol family 16
 +ath: Register ath_data_device at address 0x1ffe1000
 +registering PCI controller with io_map_base unset
 +bio: create slab <​bio-0>​ at 0
 +pci 0000:​00:​01.0:​ reg 10 32bit mmio: [0x000000-0x00ffff]
 +Switching to clocksource MIPS
 +NET: Registered protocol family 2
 +IP route cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
 +TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
 +TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
 +TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
 +TCP reno registered
 +NET: Registered protocol family 1
 +audit: initializing netlink socket (disabled)
 +type=2000 audit(0.197:​1):​ initialized
 +squashfs: version 4.0 (2009/​01/​31) Phillip Lougher
 +Registering mini_fo version $Id$
 +JFFS2 version 2.2. (NAND) (SUMMARY) ​ © 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
 +msgmni has been set to 58
 +io scheduler noop registered
 +io scheduler deadline registered (default)
 +gpiodev: gpio device registered with major 254
 +gpiodev: gpio platform device registered with access mask FFFFFFFF
 +bcm63xx_uart.0:​ ttyS0 at MMIO 0xfffe0100 (irq = 10) is a bcm63xx_uart
 +console [ttyS0] enabled, bootconsole disabled
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ 0x00400000 at 0x1fc00000
 +bcm963xx: Found 1 x16 devices at 0x0 in 16-bit bank
 + ​Amd/​Fujitsu Extended Query Table at 0x0040
 +number of CFI chips: 1
 +cfi_cmdset_0002:​ Disabling erase-suspend-program due to code brokenness.
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Read Signature value of CFE1CFE1
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ CFE bootloader detected
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ CFE boot tag found with version 6, board type 96358GW, and tagid bc310.
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Partition 0 is CFE offset 81ce1e48 and length 0
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Partition 1 is kernel offset d2b and length 0
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Partition 2 is rootfs offset d6c and length 0
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Partition 3 is ath_data offset dad and length 0
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Partition 4 is nvram offset df0 and length 0
 +bcm963xx_flash:​ Spare partition is 2a0000 offset and length 150000
 +Creating 5 MTD partitions on "​bcm963xx":​
 +0x000000000000-0x000000010000 : "​CFE"​
 +0x000000010100-0x0000000f0000 : "​kernel"​
 +mtd: partition "​kernel"​ must either start or end on erase block boundary or be smaller than an erase block -- forcing read-only
 +0x0000000f0000-0x0000003e0000 : "​rootfs"​
 +mtd: partition "​rootfs"​ set to be root filesystem
 +mtd: partition "​rootfs_data"​ created automatically,​ ofs=2A0000, len=140000 ​
 +0x0000002a0000-0x0000003e0000 : "​rootfs_data"​
 +0x0000003e0000-0x0000003f0000 : "​ath_data"​
 +0x0000003f0000-0x000000400000 : "​nvram"​
 +bcm63xx_enet MII bus: probed
 +bcm63xx_wdt started, timer margin: 30 sec
 +TCP westwood registered
 +NET: Registered protocol family 17
 +802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8 Ben Greear <​>​
 +All bugs added by David S. Miller <​>​
 +VFS: Mounted root (squashfs filesystem) readonly on device 31:2.
 +Freeing unused kernel memory: 136k freed
 +Please be patient, while OpenWrt loads ...
 +mini_fo: using base directory: /
 +mini_fo: using storage directory: /jffs
 +eth1: link forced UP - 100/full - flow control off/off
 +Generic kernel compatibility enabled based on linux-next next-20100113
 +device eth1.1 entered promiscuous mode
 +device eth1 entered promiscuous mode
 +br-lan: port 1(eth1.1) entering forwarding state
 +cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain
 +roboswitch: Probing device eth0: 
 +roboswitch: [/​home/​virus/​kamikaze/​build_dir/​linux-brcm63xx/​kmod-switch/​switch-robo.c:​130] SIOCGETCPHYRD failed!
 +roboswitch: [/​home/​virus/​kamikaze/​build_dir/​linux-brcm63xx/​kmod-switch/​switch-robo.c:​130] SIOCGETCPHYRD failed!
 +No Robo switch in managed mode found, phy_id = 0xffffffff
 +roboswitch: Probing device eth1: found a 5325! It's a 5350.
 +PCI: Enabling device 0000:​00:​01.0 (0000 -> 0002)
 + # reading ath_data
 +ath: eepdata = 0x00000cb8, el = 0x0000065c,
 +ath: eepdata = 0x000081fe, el = 0x0000065c,
 +ath: sum = 0x0000ffff, length = 0x00000cb8, checksum = 0x000063d1
 +ath: EEPROM regdomain: 0x0
 +ath: EEPROM indicates default country code should be used
 +ath: doing EEPROM country->​regdmn map search
 +ath: country maps to regdmn code: 0x3a
 +ath: Country alpha2 being used: US
 +ath: Regpair used: 0x3a
 +phy0: Selected rate control algorithm '​minstrel_ht'​
 +Registered led device: ath9k-phy0::​radio
 +Registered led device: ath9k-phy0::​assoc
 +Registered led device: ath9k-phy0::​tx
 +Registered led device: ath9k-phy0::​rx
 +phy0: Atheros AR5416 MAC/BB Rev:2 AR2122 RF Rev:81 mem=0xc0360000,​ irq=39
 +cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US
 +PPP generic driver version 2.4.2
 +cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country: US
 +    (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain,​ max_eirp)
 +    (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 2700 mBm)
 +    (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 1700 mBm)
 +    (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 2000 mBm)
 +    (5490000 KHz - 5600000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 2000 mBm)
 +    (5650000 KHz - 5710000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 2000 mBm)
 +    (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (300 mBi, 3000 mBm)
 +ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team
 +NET: Registered protocol family 24
 +nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (466 buckets, 1864 max)
 +ath_hal: module license '​Proprietary'​ taints kernel.
 +Disabling lock debugging due to kernel taint
 +ath_hal: 2009-05-08 (AR5210, AR5211, AR5212, AR5416, RF5111, RF5112, RF2413, RF5413, RF2133, RF2425, REGOPS_FUNC,​ XR)
 +ath_pci: trunk
 +wlan: trunk
 +wlan: mac acl policy registered
 +ath_rate_minstrel:​ Minstrel automatic rate control algorithm 1.2 (trunk)
 +ath_rate_minstrel:​ look around rate set to 10%
 +ath_rate_minstrel:​ EWMA rolloff level set to 75%
 +ath_rate_minstrel:​ max segment size in the mrr set to 6000 us
 +device wlan0 entered promiscuous mode
 +br-lan: port 2(wlan0) entering forwarding state
 +device wlan0 left promiscuous mode
 +br-lan: port 2(wlan0) entering disabled state
 +device wlan0 entered promiscuous mode
 +br-lan: port 2(wlan0) entering forwarding state</​nowiki>​
 +===== Hints =====
 +==== Backup ath_data ====
 +Before flashing OpenWrt make sure to backup "​ath_data"​ (/​dev/​mtdblock4). It's calibration data for wireless device. You have to include this data into OpenWrt, and modify ath9k driver to read it durning device initialisation.
 +Normally the ''​dd''​ command would be used for copying such data; however the Linksys provided OS does not include this command. ​ Using the ''​cp''​ command would result in just the inode information being copied, so instead use the ''​cat''​ command - placing the result within the /tmp directory which is a writable part of the filesystem,
 +<​code>​cat /​dev/​mtdblock4 > /​tmp/​ath_data</​code>​
 +You then need to get this image off the router. ​ As there is no ftp client installed; use the in-built web server. ​ As you can't write to the directory currently used by the http server, let's just hijack the daemon for a short while,
 +<​code>/​usr/​sbin/​rc httpd stop
 +/​usr/​sbin/​mini_httpd -d /​tmp</​code>​
 +You should now be able to download mtdblock4 from another system, using something smilar to,
 +<​code>​wget --user=admin --password=adminpass -O ath_data http://​​ath_data</​code>​
 +Once you've downloaded mtdb4 kill the mini-httpd and restart the web server using its normal configuration,​
 +<​code>​killall mini_httpd
 +/​usr/​sbin/​rc httpd start</​code>​
 +===== Tags =====
 +[[meta:​tags|How to add tags]]
 +{{tag>​bcm63xx bcm6358 4flash 32ram}}