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toh:mikrotik:mikrotik_routerboard_rb493

MikroTik Routerboard RB493

The RB493 has nine ethernet ports and three miniPCI slots, it also has a switch chip, so the ethernet ports of your choice can be grouped together to make it act as a switch.

Supported Versions

Hardware Highlights

Installation

Flash Layout

Layer0 m25p80 spi0.0: pm25lv512 (64 Kbytes) Samsung NAND 64MiB 3,3V 8-bit
Layer1 mtd0 routerboot mtd1 hard_config mtd2 bios mtd3 soft_config mtd4 booter mtd5 kernel mtd6 rootfs
Size in MiB 45 KiB 4 KiB 8 KiB 4 KiB 256 KiB 3.7 MiB 60 MiB
Name kernel rootfs
mountpoint none none none none none none /
filesystem none none none none none none JFFS2

OEM installation using the TFTP method

Specific values needed for tftp

1. Have the following software installed on a linux system with an eth0 interface on the 192.168.1.0/24 network (instructions assume address 192.168.1.15) to install from:

  atftpd
  isc-dhcp-server
  python3 (provides SimpleHTTPServer)
  screen (for monitoring Serial port)

2. Download the following 3 files to a work directory:

  http://downloads.openwrt.org/barrier_breaker/14.07/ar71xx/mikrotik/openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-initramfs-lzma.elf
  http://downloads.openwrt.org/chaos_calmer/15.05/ar71xx/mikrotik/openwrt-15.05-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-lzma.elf
  http://downloads.openwrt.org/chaos_calmer/15.05/ar71xx/mikrotik/openwrt-15.05-ar71xx-mikrotik-Ath5k-rootfs.tar.gz

3. Run the following commands to rename the file correctlys for the wget2nand script:

  mv openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-initramfs-lzma.elf  openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-initramfs.elf
  mv openwrt-15.05-ar71xx-mikrotik-Ath5k-rootfs.tar.gz openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-rootfs.tar.gz
  mv openwrt-15.05-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-lzma.elf openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-lzma.elf
          

5. Run the following command to set up dhcp and tftp to serve the image file to the RB493:

  sudo dnsmasq --no-daemon --port=0 --dhcp-range="192.168.1.50,192.168.1.150,12h" --enable-tftp --bootp-dynamic --dhcp-boot="openwrt-ar71xx-mikrotik-vmlinux-initramfs.elf" --tftp-root=`pwd`

6. Connect ethernet cable from your system to ETH1 on the RouterBoard 493.

7. Connect serial cable between your system and the RouterBoard 493. Example connection using the screen utility (assumes serial access is via ttyUSB0):

  sudo screen -L /dev/ttyUSB0 115200 8N1    

8. Press a key shortly after applying power to the router board to halt the boot process and enter the RouterBoot configuration.

9. Select e to format nand.

10. Select o to change the boot device.

11. Select 1 to boot from Ethernet once.

12. Select x to exit setup. If everything is setup correctly it should boot the RouterBoard from the tftp image.

13. Press Enter and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP.

14. On the Linux computer enter Ctrl-C on the console to stop the dnsmasq program and run the following command to serve the kernel and root filesystem image:

  python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8080

15. In the serial console run the following command to install OpenWrt to the RouterBoard 493 NAND:

  wget2nand http://192.168.1.15:8080

16. This script will download the kernel and roots tar file from the server above, erase the NAND flash and mount the root and kernel partitions. It will then copy the kernel to the appropriate partition, prepare the root filesystem and copy the files. You should see the following lines when this has completed:

  Cleaning up… 
  Image written, you can now reboot. Remember to change the boot source to Boot from Nand

18. Run the following command in the serial console, then wait :

  reboot
  

19. After the system reboots wait about 60 seconds and press enter and you should see the Chaos Calmer busybox shell.

20. Since the initial configuration of networking is broken edit the /etc/config/network file and replace the contents with the following:

config interface 'loopback'
        option ifname 'lo'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '127.0.0.1'
        option netmask '255.0.0.0'

config globals 'globals'
        option ula_prefix 'fd23:0841:73cf::/48'

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth1'
        option force_link '1'
        option type 'bridge'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '192.168.1.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option ip6assign '60'

config interface 'wan'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dhcp'

config interface 'wan6'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dhcpv6'

config switch 
        option name 'switch0'
        option reset '1'
        option enable_vlan '1'

config switch_vlan
        option device 'switch0'
        option vlan '1'
        option ports '0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8'

21. You can now reboot the RouterBoard and remove the serial connection. Eth1 will now get an address from DHCP when connected and Eth2 thru Eth9 can be used to access the RouterBoard at 192.168.1.1

Upgrading OpenWrt

wget2nand

sysupgrade does not support this router. It may be possible to upgrade using the wget2nand script, but I have not tested this method.

Debricking

generic.debrick

In worst case keep "Reset"-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console. That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/TFTP).

Failsafe mode

Basic configuration

Basic configuration After flashing, proceed with this.
Set up your Internet connection, configure wireless, configure USB port, etc.

Specific Configuration

Network interfaces

The default network configuration should be (see below for corrected configuration file):

Interface Name Description Default configuration
br-lan(eth1) LAN & WiFi 192.168.1.1/24
vlan1 (eth1 ) LAN ports (ETH2 to ETH9) 192.168.1.1/24
eth0 WAN port (ETH1) DHCP
wl0 EXAMPLE WiFi Disabled

Switch Ports (for VLANs)

Initial configuration of ports is broken.

The default switch configuration should be:

Board Port VLAN Interface
Eth1 eth0
Eth2 0 1 eth1
Eth3 1 1 eth1
Eth4 2 1 eth1
Eth5 3 1 eth1
Eth6 4 1 eth1
Eth7 5 1 eth1
Eth8 6 1 eth1
Eth9 7 1 eth1
CPU 8 1 eth1

''/etc/config/network'' to enable above configuration

config interface 'loopback'
        option ifname 'lo'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '127.0.0.1'
        option netmask '255.0.0.0'

config globals 'globals'
        option ula_prefix 'fd23:0841:73cf::/48'

config interface 'lan'
        option ifname 'eth1'
        option force_link '1'
        option type 'bridge'
        option proto 'static'
        option ipaddr '192.168.1.1'
        option netmask '255.255.255.0'
        option ip6assign '60'

config interface 'wan'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dhcp'

config interface 'wan6'
        option ifname 'eth0'
        option proto 'dhcpv6'

config switch 
        option name 'switch0'
        option reset '1'
        option enable_vlan '1'

config switch_vlan
        option device 'switch0'
        option vlan '1'
        option ports '0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8'

Buttons

hardware.button on howto use and configure the hardware button(s). Here, we merely name the buttons, so we can use them in the above Howto.

The MikroTik Routerboard RB493 has the following buttons:

BUTTON Event
Reset reset

Hardware

Info

Architecture: MIPS-BE
Vendor: Mikrotik / Atheros
Bootloader: MikroTik RouterBoot (Rescue- and Main-Bootloader)
Default Operating System: MikroTik RouterOS v4, Level5-license
System-On-Chip: Atheros AR7130
CPU/Speed MIPS 24Kc 300 Mhz
Flash-Chip: Samsung NAND 64MiB 3,3V 8-bit
Flash size: 64 MiB NAND-Flash
RAM: 64 MiB DDR-SDRAM
Wireless: optional via 3x Mini-PCI IIIA/B
Ethernet: 9x 10/100Base-T(X) (IC+ IP178C 8-port-switch with VLAN support swconfig
Internet: n/a/xDSL/DOCSIS/3g/LTE
USB: none
Serial: YES 1x Sub-DB9 RS-232C asynchronous
JTAG: Maybe (contacts on PCB, not tested)
LED: Power, NAND activity, 5x user LED
Power options: 10..28 VDC Power-over-Ethernet or Power-Jack
Power consumption: ~3 Watt, up to 10 Watt for MiniPCI-cards, maximum 16 Watt
Dimensions: 160 mm x 105 mm, 189 grams

Photos

Main PCB:
Insert photo of PCB

Serial

port.serial general information about the serial port, serial port cable, etc.

The Routerboard has one serial interface in form of a Sub-D9-socket. By default it provides a serial console. It can be accessed with a Null-Modem-Cable (115200, 8N1, no handshaking!).

JTAG

port.jtag general information about the JTAG port, JTAG cable, etc.

There are seven contacts named "JTAG" between Eth2 port and MiniPCI-Socket, but not tested.

Bootlogs

OpenWrt bootlog

RouterBOOT booter 2.39 RouterBoard 493 CPU frequency: 300 MHz Memory size: 64 MB Press any key within 4 seconds to enter setup.... loading kernel from nand... OK setting up elf image... OK jumping to kernel code ^MOpenWrt kernel loader for AR7XXX/AR9XXX ^MCopyright (C) 2011 Gabor Juhos <juhosg@openwrt.org> ^MDecompressing kernel... done! ^MStarting kernel at 80060000... ^M[ 0.000000] Linux version 3.18.20 (buildbot@builder1) (gcc version 4.8.3 (OpenWrt/Linaro GCC 4.8-2014.04 r46450) ) #1 Fri Sep 4 21:32:22 CEST 2015 [ 0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled [ 0.000000] CPU0 revision is: 00019374 (MIPS 24Kc) [ 0.000000] SoC: Atheros AR7130 rev 2 [ 0.000000] Determined physical RAM map: [ 0.000000] memory: 04000000 @ 00000000 (usable) [ 0.000000] User-defined physical RAM map: [ 0.000000] memory: 04000000 @ 00000000 (usable) [ 0.000000] Initrd not found or empty - disabling initrd [ 0.000000] Zone ranges: [ 0.000000] Normal [mem 0x00000000-0x03ffffff] [ 0.000000] Movable zone start for each node [ 0.000000] Early memory node ranges [ 0.000000] node 0: [mem 0x00000000-0x03ffffff] [ 0.000000] Initmem setup node 0 [mem 0x00000000-0x03ffffff] [ 0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, VIPT, 4-way, linesize 32 bytes. [ 0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32 bytes [ 0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on. Total pages: 16256 [ 0.000000] Kernel command line: console=ttyS0,115200 gpio=4031 HZ=150000000 mem=64M kmac=00:0C:42:74:B2:06 board=493 boot=1 mlc=2 rootfstype=yaffs noinitrd [ 0.000000] PID hash table entries: 256 (order: -2, 1024 bytes) [ 0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes) [ 0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes) [ 0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000040 [ 0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000040 [ 0.000000] Memory: 61072K/65536K available (2573K kernel code, 153K rwdata, 332K rodata, 196K init, 189K bss, 4464K reserved) [ 0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=32, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1 [ 0.000000] NR_IRQS:51 [ 0.000000] Clocks: CPU:300.000MHz, DDR:300.000MHz, AHB:150.000MHz, Ref:40.000MHz [ 0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 199.06 BogoMIPS (lpj=995328) [ 0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301 [ 0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.090000] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.100000] NET: Registered protocol family 16 [ 0.100000] MIPS: machine is MikroTik RouterBOARD 493/AH [ 0.840000] registering PCI controller with io_map_base unset [ 0.860000] rb4xx-spi rb4xx-spi: master is unqueued, this is deprecated [ 0.860000] PCI host bridge to bus 0000:00 [ 0.870000] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [mem 0x10000000-0x16ffffff] [ 0.870000] pci_bus 0000:00: root bus resource [io 0x0000] [ 0.880000] pci_bus 0000:00: No busn resource found for root bus, will use [bus 00-ff] [ 0.880000] pci 0000:00:12.0: BAR 0: assigned [mem 0x10000000-0x1000ffff] [ 0.890000] pci 0000:00:14.0: BAR 0: assigned [mem 0x10010000-0x1001ffff] [ 0.890000] pci 0000:00:12.0: using irq 40 for pin 1 [ 0.900000] pci 0000:00:14.0: using irq 42 for pin 1 [ 0.900000] Switched to clocksource MIPS [ 0.910000] NET: Registered protocol family 2 [ 0.910000] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.910000] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.920000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024) [ 0.930000] TCP: reno registered [ 0.930000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.940000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes) [ 0.940000] NET: Registered protocol family 1 [ 0.950000] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: -1, 3072 bytes) [ 0.980000] msgmni has been set to 119 [ 0.980000] io scheduler noop registered [ 0.990000] io scheduler deadline registered (default) [ 0.990000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 16 ports, IRQ sharing enabled [ 1.000000] console [ttyS0] disabled [ 1.030000] serial8250.0: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 11, base_baud = 9375000) is a 16550A [ 1.040000] console [ttyS0] enabled [ 1.040000] console [ttyS0] enabled [ 1.040000] bootconsole [early0] disabled [ 1.040000] bootconsole [early0] disabled [ 1.050000] m25p80 spi0.0: pm25lv512 (64 Kbytes) [ 1.060000] Creating 4 MTD partitions on "spi0.0": [ 1.070000] 0x000000000000-0x00000000b000 : "routerboot" [ 1.070000] 0x00000000b000-0x00000000c000 : "hard_config" [ 1.080000] 0x00000000d000-0x00000000f000 : "bios" [ 1.090000] 0x00000000f000-0x000000010000 : "soft_config" [ 1.090000] NAND flash driver for RouterBoard 4xx series version 0.2.0 [ 1.100000] nand: device found, Manufacturer ID: 0xec, Chip ID: 0x76 [ 1.110000] nand: Samsung NAND 64MiB 3,3V 8-bit [ 1.110000] nand: 64MiB, SLC, page size: 512, OOB size: 16 [ 1.120000] Scanning device for bad blocks [ 1.180000] Bad eraseblock 256 at 0x000000400000 [ 1.710000] Bad eraseblock 2455 at 0x00000265c000 [ 2.100000] Creating 3 MTD partitions on "NAND 64MiB 3,3V 8-bit": [ 2.110000] 0x000000000000-0x000000040000 : "booter" [ 2.110000] 0x000000040000-0x000000400000 : "kernel" [ 2.120000] 0x000000400000-0x000004000000 : "rootfs" [ 2.130000] mtd: device 6 (rootfs) set to be root filesystem [ 2.130000] mtdsplit: no squashfs found in "rootfs" [ 2.140000] mtdsplit: no squashfs found in "NAND 64MiB 3,3V 8-bit" [ 2.160000] IP17xx: Found IP178C at ag71xx-mdio.0:00 [ 2.170000] libphy: ag71xx_mdio: probed [ 2.490000] eth0: Atheros AG71xx at 0xb9000000, irq 4, mode:MII [ 2.970000] ag71xx ag71xx.1: connected to PHY at ag71xx-mdio.0:00 [uid=02430d80, driver=IC+ IP17xx] [ 2.980000] eth1: Atheros AG71xx at 0xba000000, irq 5, mode:RMII [ 2.980000] TCP: cubic registered [ 2.990000] NET: Registered protocol family 17 [ 2.990000] bridge: automatic filtering via arp/ip/ip6tables has been deprecated. Update your scripts to load br_netfilter if you need this. [ 3.000000] Bridge firewalling registered [ 3.010000] 8021q: 802.1Q VLAN Support v1.8 [ 3.010000] rb: no calibration data found [ 3.020000] yaffs: dev is 32505862 name is "mtdblock6" ro [ 3.030000] yaffs: passed flags "" [ 8.470000] VFS: Mounted root (yaffs filesystem) readonly on device 31:6. [ 8.480000] Freeing unused kernel memory: 196K (8035f000 - 80390000) [ 10.100000] init: Console is alive [ 10.100000] init: - watchdog - [ 13.220000] init: - preinit - [ 13.680000] eth0: link up (100Mbps/Full duplex) [ 13.710000] random: procd urandom read with 78 bits of entropy available Press the [f] key and hit [enter] to enter failsafe mode Press the [1], [2], [3] or [4] key and hit [enter] to select the debug level [ 16.940000] mount_root: mounting /dev/root [ 16.990000] eth0: link down [ 17.000000] procd: - early - [ 17.010000] procd: - watchdog - [ 17.620000] procd: - ubus - [ 18.650000] procd: - init - Please press Enter to activate this console. [ 19.950000] NET: Registered protocol family 10 [ 19.960000] ip6_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team [ 19.990000] Loading modules backported from Linux version master-2015-03-09-0-g141f155 [ 20.000000] Backport generated by backports.git backports-20150129-0-gdd4a670 [ 20.010000] ip_tables: (C) 2000-2006 Netfilter Core Team [ 20.030000] nf_conntrack version 0.5.0 (957 buckets, 3828 max) [ 20.080000] xt_time: kernel timezone is -0000 [ 20.120000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA to update world regulatory domain [ 20.360000] cfg80211: World regulatory domain updated: [ 20.360000] cfg80211: DFS Master region: unset [ 20.370000] cfg80211: (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain, max_eirp), (dfs_cac_time) [ 20.380000] cfg80211: (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.380000] cfg80211: (2457000 KHz - 2482000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.390000] cfg80211: (2474000 KHz - 2494000 KHz @ 20000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.400000] cfg80211: (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.410000] cfg80211: (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 80000 KHz, 160000 KHz AUTO), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (0 s) [ 20.420000] cfg80211: (5490000 KHz - 5730000 KHz @ 160000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (0 s) [ 20.420000] cfg80211: (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 2000 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.430000] cfg80211: (57240000 KHz - 63720000 KHz @ 2160000 KHz), (N/A, 0 mBm), (N/A) [ 20.700000] PPP generic driver version 2.4.2 [ 20.710000] NET: Registered protocol family 24 [ 20.730000] PCI: Enabling device 0000:00:14.0 (0000 -> 0002) [ 20.740000] ath5k 0000:00:14.0: registered as 'phy0' [ 20.830000] random: nonblocking pool is initialized [ 21.230000] ath5k: phy0: Atheros AR5213A chip found (MAC: 0x59, PHY: 0x43) [ 21.230000] ath5k: phy0: RF5112B multiband radio found (0x36) [ 21.520000] PCI: Enabling device 0000:00:12.0 (0000 -> 0002) [ 23.110000] ieee80211 phy1: Atheros AR9280 Rev:2 mem=0xb0000000, irq=40 [ 23.240000] cfg80211: Calling CRDA for country: US [ 23.240000] cfg80211: Regulatory domain changed to country: US [ 23.250000] cfg80211: DFS Master region: FCC [ 23.250000] cfg80211: (start_freq - end_freq @ bandwidth), (max_antenna_gain, max_eirp), (dfs_cac_time) [ 23.260000] cfg80211: (2402000 KHz - 2472000 KHz @ 40000 KHz), (N/A, 3000 mBm), (N/A) [ 23.270000] cfg80211: (5170000 KHz - 5250000 KHz @ 80000 KHz, 160000 KHz AUTO), (N/A, 1700 mBm), (N/A) [ 23.280000] cfg80211: (5250000 KHz - 5330000 KHz @ 80000 KHz, 160000 KHz AUTO), (N/A, 2300 mBm), (0 s) [ 23.290000] cfg80211: (5735000 KHz - 5835000 KHz @ 80000 KHz), (N/A, 3000 mBm), (N/A) [ 23.300000] cfg80211: (57240000 KHz - 63720000 KHz @ 2160000 KHz), (N/A, 4000 mBm), (N/A) [ 37.170000] device eth1 entered promiscuous mode [ 37.170000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered forwarding state [ 37.180000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered forwarding state [ 37.210000] ar71xx: pll_reg 0xb8050010: 0x1099 [ 37.230000] eth0: link up (100Mbps/Full duplex) [ 38.160000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered disabled state [ 39.060000] ar71xx: pll_reg 0xb8050014: 0x1099 [ 39.060000] eth1: link up (100Mbps/Full duplex) [ 39.060000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered forwarding state [ 39.070000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered forwarding state [ 41.070000] br-lan: port 1(eth1) entered forwarding state BusyBox v1.23.2 (2015-07-25 12:03:12 CEST) built-in shell (ash) _______ ________ __ | |.-----.-----.-----.| | | |.----.| |_ | - || _ | -__| || | | || _|| _| |_______|| __|_____|__|__||________||__| |____| |__| W I R E L E S S F R E E D O M ----------------------------------------------------- CHAOS CALMER (15.05, r46767) ----------------------------------------------------- * 1 1/2 oz Gin Shake with a glassful * 1/4 oz Triple Sec of broken ice and pour * 3/4 oz Lime Juice unstrained into a goblet. * 1 1/2 oz Orange Juice * 1 tsp. Grenadine Syrup ----------------------------------------------------- root@RB493:/#


Notes

Tags

toh/mikrotik/mikrotik_routerboard_rb493.txt · Last modified: 2016/01/08 13:23 by rdmarsh