|Atheros AR7161 680/800 MHz||256MiB||128MiB, 1x Micro-SD-socket||9x 1000Base-T||1x 2.0 unpowered||Yes (console)||??? (contacts on PCB)||3x Type IIIA/B|
|Shop||Country||Routerboard 493G||Encasing CA493||Last checked|
|http://shop.meconet.de/||DE||140,- €||19,- €||2012-12-25|
|http://varia-store.com/||DE||172,- €||20,- €||2012-12-25|
|http://varia-store.com/||DE||220,- $||26,- $||2012-12-25|
Please check out the article Flash Layout. It contains an example and a couple of explanations.
root@OpenWrt:/# cat /proc/mtd dev: size erasesize name mtd0: 0000b000 00001000 "routerboot" mtd1: 00001000 00001000 "hard_config" mtd2: 00002000 00001000 "bios" mtd3: 00001000 00001000 "soft_config" mtd4: 00040000 00020000 "booter" mtd5: 003c0000 00020000 "kernel" mtd6: 07c00000 00020000 "rootfs"The two partitions used to install OpenWrt are kernel and rootfs. Their sizes are in bytes with hex, which translates to 3840KiB for kernel and 126976KiB for rootfs.
The bootloader is able to load an image in ELF-format via BOOTP/DHCP and TFTP into RAM and execute it.
This is the easiest way to achieve a live boot of your RB493G, but it requires that you already have an OpenWrt router with net-access available. You will need to obtain an elf-image for the RB493G, and make it available to the other router. If you have enough memory available on the other router, you can put the image on the /tmp folder there, e.g., like this:
ssh email@example.com wget --directory-prefix=/tmp http://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09-beta2/ar71xx/nand/openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elfNow enable dnsmasq's built in tftp server, and point it to the correct locations, e.g., like this: That's it, Save and apply, connect the Eth1/WAN port of RB493G to one of the other routers LAN ports, and continue to Setup the Routerboard.
You need a BOOTP- and a TFTP-server on your host-machine, we use
dnsmasq here, since it can provide both services. Install dnsmasq with:
sudo apt-get install dnsmasq
Note that network-manager has a dependency on dnsmasq-base, which will block port 53. Hence, you may need to remove dnsmasq-base, e.g., with
sudo aptitude install dnsmasq dnsmasq-base-you may need to reinstall dependencies that will be removed in the process. ref. http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?p=12006425
Changes in /etc/dnsmasq.conf:
- make sure the LAN has internet access:
- only listen on the interface which is directly connected to the same LAN like the WAN-port (Eth1/PoE) of the RouterBoard via a layer2 switch, e.g.
- set default gateway, e.g.
- allow a DHCP range which is within netmask of your LAN but does not conflict with other DHCP-service, e.g.
- allocate an IP address to the board, e.g.
dhcp-host=00:0C:42:XX:XX:XX,192.168.177.2(replace the XX with the MAC address of your board!)
- enable dnsmasq's built-in TFTP-server
- set the root directory-for files available via TFTP.
- download initramfs-kernel-image into root-directory of the TFTP-server:
wget --directory-prefix=/srv/tftp http://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09-beta2/ar71xx/nand/openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf
- set filename of kernel image for tftp-server/BOOTP:
Finally restart dnsmasq
sudo /etc/init.d/dnsmasq restart
- Connect to the serial port with a null modem cable (115200, 8N1, no handshaking).
- Press a key shortly after powering the board.
- Press o to change the boot device
- Press 1 to boot from ethernet once.
- Press x to leave setup (-o-1-x is needed only once, the boot method is saved in non-volatile memory)
If everything is setup correctly it should look like:
\0x00 RouterBOOT booter 2.29 RouterBoard 493G CPU frequency: 680 MHz Memory size: 256 MB Press any key within 2 seconds to enter setup.. writing settings to flash... OK trying bootp protocol... OK Got IP address: 192.168.177.2 resolved mac address 00:14:0B:3F:BB:C3 Gateway: 192.168.177.1 transfer started ............................... transfer ok, time=1.46s setting up elf image... OK jumping to kernel code [ 0.000000] Linux version 3.3.8 (renne@renne) (gcc version 4.6.3 20120201 (prerelease) (Linaro GCC 4.6-2012.02) ) #1 Mon Sep 17 12:57:18 CEST 2012 [ 0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled [ 0.000000] CPU revision is: 00019374 (MIPS 24Kc) [ 0.000000] SoC: Atheros AR7161 rev 2 [ 0.000000] Clocks: CPU:680.000MHz, DDR:340.000MHz, AHB:170.000MHz, Ref:40.000MHz [ 0.000000] Determined physical RAM map: [ 0.000000] memory: 08000000 @ 00000000 (usable) [ 0.000000] User-defined physical RAM map: [ 0.000000] memory: 10000000 @ 00000000 (usable) [ 0.000000] Initrd not found or empty - disabling initrd [ 0.000000] Zone PFN ranges: [ 0.000000] Normal 0x00000000 -> 0x00010000 [ 0.000000] Movable zone start PFN for each node [ 0.000000] Early memory PFN ranges [ 0.000000] 0: 0x00000000 -> 0x00010000 ... Please press Enter to activate this console. [ 21.710000] device eth0 entered promiscuous mode [ 21.720000] device eth1.1 entered promiscuous mode [ 21.720000] device eth1 entered promiscuous mode [ 23.110000] eth0: link up (1000Mbps/Full duplex) [ 23.130000] br-lan: port 1(eth0) entered forwarding state [ 23.130000] br-lan: port 1(eth0) entered forwarding state [ 23.600000] eth1: link up (1000Mbps/Full duplex) [ 23.610000] br-lan: port 2(eth1.1) entered forwarding state [ 23.620000] br-lan: port 2(eth1.1) entered forwarding state [ 25.130000] br-lan: port 1(eth0) entered forwarding state [ 25.620000] br-lan: port 2(eth1.1) entered forwarding state
Press Enter and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP.
Note that you may need to set dns servers to get net-access while running the netbooted image. Enter a working dns for you in
vi /tmp/resolv.conf.autothen restart dnsmasq to make the change effective (cross-check that you indeed have net-access afterwords):
You need a working Netboot first, see above.
If you want to install OpenWrt permanently into the NAND flash you once need to erase the NAND flash to get rid of the RouterOS stuff:
- connect via serial line
- press a key shortly after powering the RB493G up
- press e and type yes to format the flash from the bootloader
- power off the Routerboard
- Start Netboot (see above).
- Press ENTER to get a shell prompt.
You can adjust the path-part dependend on the OpenWRT-version ('attitude_adjustment/12.09'), but make sure you use the 'ar71xx/nand/'-branch and at least version '12.09-rc2'.
Use the Permanent-Installation-Guide via BOOTP/TFTP-Netboot from above.
→ Basic configuration After flashing, proceed with this.
Set up your Internet connection, configure wireless, configure USB port, etc.
The default network configuration is:
|Interface Name||Description||Default configuration|
|br-lan (eth0, eth1.1)||LAN||192.168.1.1/24|
The default switch configuration is:
→ hardware.button on howto use and configure the hardware button(s).
The Routerboard 493G has one software reset button.
The SD-card reader is now supposed to work, but the needed patch is currently not in trunk. You will find the ticket with history here: https://dev.openwrt.org/ticket/12349
Hence precompiled images with working SD-card reader is not yet available from the OpenWrt server. Until that is resolved, you can find compiled kernel and rootfs here: http://ubuntuone.com/1bZTk4vlKwroZezcdeJa4l http://ubuntuone.com/2V1BoearwvvMOsNzUz7mcx
Provide them on a web-server, or copy them manually over to the kernel and rootfs partitions on the nand.
The USB-port of the RB493G is a shameful chapter of Mikrotik engineering.
The USB-standard demands a 5VDC-power-supply on the USB-socket, but Mikrotik tried to save a few cents for a voltage converter. So one has to buy a power-injector from Mikrotik and any 5VDC-power-supply. Pray the plug of your power-supply fits into the power-injector! Just using a powered USB-hub doesn't solve the problem, as USB-hubs only enumerate/register with the host-controller when 5VDC is supplied by the host-controller.
Reliable vendors just update their PCB-layout, but Mikrotik sells that non-standard/sub-standard PCB-layout for years, now.
The Routerboard has a OHCI-controller for USB 1.x and a EHCI-controller for USB 2.0.
See usb.essentials for configuration.
|Vendor:||Mikrotik / Qualcomm Atheros|
|Bootloader:||MikroTik RouterBoot (Rescue- and Main-Bootloader)|
|Default Operating System:||MikroTik RouterOS v4, Level5-license|
|System-On-Chip:||Atheros AR7161 rev 2|
|CPU/Speed||MIPS 24Kc rev 00019374 680/800 Mhz|
|Flash-Chip:||Samsung NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit, ST Micro NAND01GW3B2CN6 or Toshiba NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit|
|Flash size:||128 MiB NAND-Flash|
|Micro-SD:||1x Micro-SD-socket (probably SPI)|
|RAM:||256 MiB DDR-SDRAM|
|Wireless:||optional via 3x Mini-PCI IIIA/B|
|Ethernet:||9x 10/100/1000Base-T(X) (2x Atheros AR8316-5-port-switch with VLAN support swconfig|
|USB:||1x 2.0 (unpowered)|
|Serial:||YES 1x Sub-DB9 RS-232C asynchronous|
|JTAG:||Maybe (contatcs on PCB, not tested)|
|LED:||Power, NAND activity, 5x user LED|
|Power options:||10..28 VDC Power-over-Ethernet or Power-Jack|
|Power consumption:||~3 Watt, up to 10 Watt for MiniPCI-cards, maximum 16 Watt|
|Dimensions:||160 mm x 105 mm, 189 grams|
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails and -antennas (antennas are ALFA ARS-N19CW, 2.4GHz 9dBi - pigtails and antennas not included in enclosure package)
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with serial port, Ethernet-port, LEDs and power-connector of Routerboard RB493G
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), multi-purpose hole (e.g. N-connector, Swivel-antenna, …) and ground-screw
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with eight Ethernet-ports of Routerboard RB493G
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with venting holes
Casing: Mikrotik CA493
Casing: Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), Routerboard 493G and Routerboard R52nM (Wifi-card)
- To remove the cover just unscrew the 4 screws (2 left side, two right side)
Photo of PCB
- Power socket
- 2x LED
- 1x 1000Base-T with proprietary POE
- 1x Sub-D9 Serial Port (Console by default)
- 8x 1000Base-T Port
- 1x Reset-contacts
- 2x Atheros AR8316 (under heatsinks)
- 1x JTAG-contacts
- 1x USB 2.0 (unpowered)
- 3x MiniPCI Type IIIA/B
- 2x RAM SAMSUNG K4H510838G-LCCC
- 2x regulated Fan-connector 3.3V 500mA
- 2x regulated Fan connector main voltage 500mA
- 4x Screw holes
- Flash: ST NAND01GW382CNb
- CPLD: XILINX XC9536XL
- Flash: microSD-Socket
- RAM: 2x SAMSUNG K4H510838G-LCCC
The Routerboard has one serial interface in form of a Sub-D9-socket. By default it provides a serial console. It can be accessed with a Null-Modem-Cable (115200, 8N1, no handshaking!).
There are seven contacts named "JTAG" between USB- and MiniPCI-Socket, but not tested.
In worst case keep "Reset"-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console. That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/TFTP).
- as a beginner, you really should inform yourself about soldering in general and then even obtain some experience!
|1x||USB-2.0-dual-A-socket, e.g., these.|
|1x||USB-2.0- A-plug, e.g., these.|
|1x||Traco TSR 1-2450 step-down-converter 5VDC/1A (doesn't need any other components like capacitors or heatsink). As of this writing you will find the LM7805V voltage regulator at DealExtreme|
|1x||Multifuse 60VDC/0,5A Ihold/1A Itrip|
Proto-type and diagrams/layouts aren't beauties, but maybe someone with more Cadsoft-Eagle-experience can make a nice circuit-diagram and a real PCB-layout: Eagle files and datasheets
For some Help with the Tags, please have a look here: tags
toh/mikrotik/rb493g.txt · Last modified: 2014/10/09 13:47 by theoradicus