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toh:mikrotik:rb493g [2012/10/09 15:41]
toh:mikrotik:rb493g [2014/10/09 13:47] (current)
theoradicus add gt32flash tag
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 ===== Hardware Highlights ===== ===== Hardware Highlights =====
 ^ CPU ^ Ram ^ Flash ^ Network ^ USB ^ Serial ^ JTag ^ MiniPCI ^ ^ CPU ^ Ram ^ Flash ^ Network ^ USB ^ Serial ^ JTag ^ MiniPCI ^
-| Atheros AR7161 | 256MiB | 128MiB, 1x Micro-SD-socket | 9x 1000Base-T | 1x 2.0 unpowered | Yes (console) | ??? (contacts on PCB) | 3x Type IIIA/B |+| Atheros AR7161 ​680/800 MHz | 256MiB | 128MiB, 1x Micro-SD-socket | 9x 1000Base-T | 1x 2.0 unpowered | Yes (console) | ??? (contacts on PCB) | 3x Type IIIA/B |
  
 ==== Pricing/​Where to buy ==== ==== Pricing/​Where to buy ====
-^ Shop ^ Country ^ Routerboard 493G ^ Encasing CA493 ^ +^ Shop ^ Country ^ Routerboard 493G ^ Encasing CA493 ^ Last checked ​
-| http://​shop.meconet.de/​ | DE | 145,- € | 19,- € | +| http://​shop.meconet.de/​ | DE | 140,- € | 19,- € | 2012-12-25 ​
-| http://​varia-store.com/​ | DE | 170,- € | 20,- € | +| http://​varia-store.com/​ | DE | 172,- € | 20,- € | 2012-12-25 ​
-| http://​varia-store.com/​ | DE | 215,- $ | 25,- $ |+| http://​varia-store.com/​ | DE | 220,- $ | 26,- $ | 2012-12-25 ​|
  
 ===== Installation ===== ===== Installation =====
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 ==== Flash Layout ==== ==== Flash Layout ====
 Please check out the article [[doc:​techref:​Flash Layout]]. It contains an example and a couple of explanations. Please check out the article [[doc:​techref:​Flash Layout]]. It contains an example and a couple of explanations.
 +<​code>​root@OpenWrt:/#​ cat /proc/mtd
 +dev:    size   ​erasesize ​ name
 +mtd0: 0000b000 00001000 "​routerboot"​
 +mtd1: 00001000 00001000 "​hard_config"​
 +mtd2: 00002000 00001000 "​bios"​
 +mtd3: 00001000 00001000 "​soft_config"​
 +mtd4: 00040000 00020000 "​booter"​
 +mtd5: 003c0000 00020000 "​kernel"​
 +mtd6: 07c00000 00020000 "​rootfs"</​code>​
 +The two partitions used to install OpenWrt are kernel and rootfs. Their sizes are in bytes with hex, which translates to 3840KiB for kernel and 126976KiB for rootfs.
  
 ==== Netboot via BOOTP/TFTP ==== ==== Netboot via BOOTP/TFTP ====
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 The bootloader is able to load an image in ELF-format via BOOTP/DHCP and TFTP into RAM and execute it. The bootloader is able to load an image in ELF-format via BOOTP/DHCP and TFTP into RAM and execute it.
  
-=== Setup the Host ===+=== Use another OpenWrt router as netboot server === 
 + 
 +This is the easiest way to achieve a live boot of your RB493G, but it requires that you already have an OpenWrt router with net-access available. You will need to obtain an elf-image for the RB493G, and make it available to the other router. If you have enough memory available on the other router, you can put the image on the /tmp folder there, e.g., like this: 
 +<​code>​ssh root@192.168.1.1 
 +wget --directory-prefix=/​tmp http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta2/​ar71xx/​nand/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​ 
 +Now enable dnsmasq'​s built in tftp server, and point it to the correct locations, e.g., like this: 
 +{{ :​toh:​mikrotik:​tftpnetbootconfig.png?​630 |Setting up netboot in Luci, note the full path for the filename. }} 
 +That's it, Save and apply, connect the Eth1/WAN port of RB493G to one of the other routers LAN ports, and continue to [[toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g#​setup.the.routerboard|Setup the Routerboard]]. 
 + 
 +=== Use a Debian based server for netboot ​===
  
 You need a BOOTP- and a TFTP-server on your host-machine,​ we use ''​dnsmasq''​ here, since it can provide both services. Install dnsmasq with: You need a BOOTP- and a TFTP-server on your host-machine,​ we use ''​dnsmasq''​ here, since it can provide both services. Install dnsmasq with:
 <​code>​sudo apt-get install dnsmasq</​code>​ <​code>​sudo apt-get install dnsmasq</​code>​
 +
 +Note that network-manager has a dependency on dnsmasq-base,​ which will block port 53. Hence, you may need to remove dnsmasq-base,​ e.g., with
 +<​code>​sudo aptitude install dnsmasq dnsmasq-base-</​code>​
 +you may need to reinstall dependencies that will be removed in the process.
 +ref. http://​ubuntuforums.org/​showthread.php?​p=12006425
  
 Changes in /​etc/​dnsmasq.conf:​ Changes in /​etc/​dnsmasq.conf:​
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   - enable dnsmasq'​s built-in TFTP-server <​code>​enable-tftp</​code>​   - enable dnsmasq'​s built-in TFTP-server <​code>​enable-tftp</​code>​
   - set the root directory-for files available via TFTP. <​code>​tftp-root=/​srv/​tftp</​code>​   - set the root directory-for files available via TFTP. <​code>​tftp-root=/​srv/​tftp</​code>​
-  - download initramfs-kernel-image into root-directory of the TFTP-server:​ <​code>​!!! ADD_THE_FILE_HERE !!!</​code>​+  - download initramfs-kernel-image into root-directory of the TFTP-server:​ <​code>​wget --directory-prefix=/​srv/​tftp http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta2/​ar71xx/​nand/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​
   - set filename of kernel image for tftp-server/​BOOTP:<​code>​dhcp-boot=/​srv/​tftp/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​   - set filename of kernel image for tftp-server/​BOOTP:<​code>​dhcp-boot=/​srv/​tftp/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​
  
 Finally restart dnsmasq Finally restart dnsmasq
 <​code>​sudo /​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​ <​code>​sudo /​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​
- 
  
 === Setup the Routerboard === === Setup the Routerboard ===
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 Press **Enter** and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP. Press **Enter** and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP.
 +
 +Note that you may need to set dns servers to get net-access while running the netbooted image. Enter a working dns for you in
 +<​code>​vi /​tmp/​resolv.conf.auto</​code>​
 +then restart dnsmasq to make the change effective (cross-check that you indeed have net-access afterwords):​
 +<​code>/​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​
  
 ==== Permanent Installation ==== ==== Permanent Installation ====
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   - Execute:   - Execute:
 <​code>​ <​code>​
-wget2nand http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta/​ar71xx/​nand/​+wget2nand http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09/​ar71xx/​nand/​
 </​code>​ </​code>​
  
-You can adjust the path-part dependend on the OpenWRT-version ('​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta'), but make sure you use the '​ar71xx/​nand/'​-branch and at least version '​12.09-beta'.+You can adjust the path-part dependend on the OpenWRT-version ('​attitude_adjustment/​12.09'​),​ but make sure you use the '​ar71xx/​nand/'​-branch and at least version '​12.09-rc2'.
  
 ==== Upgrading OpenWrt ==== ==== Upgrading OpenWrt ====
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 ==== Micro-SD-Card-Reader ==== ==== Micro-SD-Card-Reader ====
-ToDo 
  
 +The SD-card reader is now supposed to work, but the needed patch is currently not in trunk. You will find the ticket with history here: https://​dev.openwrt.org/​ticket/​12349
 +
 +Hence precompiled images with working SD-card reader is not yet available from the OpenWrt server. Until that is resolved, you can find compiled kernel and rootfs here:
 +http://​ubuntuone.com/​1bZTk4vlKwroZezcdeJa4l
 +http://​ubuntuone.com/​2V1BoearwvvMOsNzUz7mcx
 +
 +Provide them on a web-server, or copy them manually over to the kernel and rootfs partitions on the nand.
  
 ==== USB ==== ==== USB ====
  
-The Routerboard has a OHCI-controller for USB 1.x and EHCI-controller for USB 2.0.+The USB-port of the RB493G is **shameful chapter of Mikrotik engineering**.
  
-USB hubs seem to be some kind of roulette gameSometimes they are detectedoften not.+The USB-standard demands a 5VDC-power-supply on the USB-socket, but Mikrotik tried to save few cents for a voltage converterSo one has to buy a power-injector from Mikrotik and any 5VDC-power-supply. Pray the plug of your power-supply fits into the power-injector! Just using a powered USB-hub doesn'​t solve the problemas USB-hubs only enumerate/​register with the host-controller when 5VDC is supplied by the host-controller.
  
-See [[doc:​howto:​usb.essentials]] ​for configuration.+Reliable vendors just update their PCB-layout, but Mikrotik sells that **non-standard/​sub-standard** PCB-layout **for years**, now.
  
 +The Routerboard has a OHCI-controller for USB 1.x and a EHCI-controller for USB 2.0.
 +
 +See [[doc:​howto:​usb.essentials]] for configuration.
  
 ===== Hardware ===== ===== Hardware =====
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 | **[[doc:​hardware:​soc|System-On-Chip]]:​** ​ | Atheros AR7161 rev 2 | | **[[doc:​hardware:​soc|System-On-Chip]]:​** ​ | Atheros AR7161 rev 2 |
 | **[[doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]/​Speed** ​       | MIPS 24Kc rev 00019374 680/800 Mhz | | **[[doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]/​Speed** ​       | MIPS 24Kc rev 00019374 680/800 Mhz |
-| **Flash-Chip:​** ​     | [[|ST NAND01GW3B2CN6]] |+| **Flash-Chip:​** ​     | [[Samsung NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit]], [[ST Micro NAND01GW3B2CN6]] or [[Toshiba NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit]] |
 | **Flash size:​** ​     | 128 MiB NAND-Flash | | **Flash size:​** ​     | 128 MiB NAND-Flash |
 | **Micro-SD:​** ​       | 1x Micro-SD-socket (probably SPI) | | **Micro-SD:​** ​       | 1x Micro-SD-socket (probably SPI) |
 | **RAM:​** ​            | 256 MiB DDR-SDRAM | | **RAM:​** ​            | 256 MiB DDR-SDRAM |
 | **Wireless:​** ​       | optional via 3x Mini-PCI IIIA/B | | **Wireless:​** ​       | optional via 3x Mini-PCI IIIA/B |
-| **Ethernet:​** ​       | 9x 10/​100/​1000Base-T(X) (1x Atheros AG71xx ​ + 2x Atheros AR8316-4-port-switch ​w/ vlan support [[doc:​techref:​swconfig]] |+| **Ethernet:​** ​       | 9x 10/​100/​1000Base-T(X) (2x Atheros AR8316-5-port-switch ​with VLAN support [[doc:​techref:​swconfig]] |
 | **Internet:​** ​       | n/​a/​xDSL/​DOCSIS/​3g/​LTE ​ | | **Internet:​** ​       | n/​a/​xDSL/​DOCSIS/​3g/​LTE ​ |
 | **USB:​** ​            | 1x 2.0 (unpowered) | | **USB:​** ​            | 1x 2.0 (unpowered) |
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 ==== Photos ==== ==== Photos ====
  
-Enclosure:+CasingMikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails and -antennas (antennas are ALFA ARS-N19CW, 2.4GHz 9dBi - pigtails and antennas not included in enclosure package)
  
-Enclosure Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails and -antennas (antennas are ALFA ARS-N19CW, 2.4GHz 9dBi - pigtails and antennas not included in enclosure package) +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_antennas.jpg?400|}}
- +
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_antennas.jpg|}}+
  
  
 //Front:// //Front://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with serial port, ethernet-port, LEDs and power-connector of Routerboard RB493G+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with serial port, Ethernet-port, LEDs and power-connector of Routerboard RB493G
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​frontside.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​frontside.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Back:// //Back://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), multi-purpose hole (e.g. N-connector,​ Swivel-antenna,​ ...) and ground-screw+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), multi-purpose hole (e.g. N-connector,​ Swivel-antenna,​ ...) and ground-screw
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​backside.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​backside.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //​Left/​Top://​ //​Left/​Top://​
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with eight ethernet-ports of Routerboard RB493G+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with eight Ethernet-ports of Routerboard RB493G
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​left_top.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​left_top.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Right:// //Right://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with venting holes+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with venting holes
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​right.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​right.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Bottom:// //Bottom://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 +Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​bottom.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​bottom.jpg?400|}}
  
-Enclosure ​opened:+Casing ​opened:
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), Routerboard 493G and Routerboard R52nM (Wifi-card)+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), Routerboard 493G and Routerboard R52nM (Wifi-card)
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_pcb.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_pcb.jpg?400|}}
  
  
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 In worst case keep "​Reset"​-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console. In worst case keep "​Reset"​-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console.
 That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/​TFTP). That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/​TFTP).
 +
 +
 +===== Hardware Mods =====
 +  - as a beginner, you really should inform yourself about [[doc:​hardware:​soldering]] in general and then even obtain some experience!
 +
 +==== USB-Modification ====
 +
 +Components:
 +
 +| 1x | PCB |
 +| 1x | USB-2.0-dual-A-socket,​ e.g., [[http://​dx.com/​p/​diy-dual-usb-female-type-a-180-degree-dip-socket-connector-silver-10-piece-pack-127653|these]]. |
 +| 1x | USB-2.0- A-plug, e.g., [[http://​dx.com/​p/​diy-usb-4-pin-female-type-a-smt-socket-connector-silver-10-piece-pack-127642|these]]. |
 +| 1x | Traco TSR 1-2450 step-down-converter 5VDC/1A (doesn'​t need any other components like capacitors or heatsink). As of this writing you will find the LM7805V voltage regulator at [[http://​dx.com/​p/​lm7805l-5v-voltage-regulator-ics-10-pcs-157382 | DealExtreme]] |
 +| 1x | Multifuse 60VDC/0,5A I<​sub>​hold</​sub>/​1A I<​sub>​trip</​sub>​ |
 +
 +Proto-type and diagrams/​layouts aren't beauties, but maybe someone with more Cadsoft-Eagle-experience can make a nice circuit-diagram and a real PCB-layout: {{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod.zip|Eagle files and datasheets}} ;-)
 +
 +Rudimentary circuit-diagram with USB-2.0 data-port (1) and generic USB-2.0 charger port (2), both supplied by a step-down-converter via the fan-connector of the RB493G:
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g_usb-mod_circuit-diagram.png?​400|}}
 +
 +Rudimentary PCB-layout, not applicable:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod_pcb.png?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype top-view:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-top.jpg?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype bottom-view:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-bottom.jpg?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype attached:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-attached.jpg?​400|}}
 +
  
 ===== Tags ===== ===== Tags =====
 For some Help with the Tags, please have a look here: [[meta/​tags]] For some Help with the Tags, please have a look here: [[meta/​tags]]
  
-{{tag>​GigabitEthernet ​FastEthernet ​9Port 2PHY USB DetachableAntenna 256RAM 128Flash MIPS MIPS32 24Kc}} +{{tag>​GigabitEthernet ​2NIC 0WNIC 9Port USB DetachableAntenna 256RAM 128Flash ​gt32flash miniPCI 3miniPCI ​MIPS MIPS32 24Kc}}
toh/mikrotik/rb493g.1349790063.txt.bz2 · Last modified: 2012/10/09 15:41 (external edit)