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toh:mikrotik:rb493g [2012/12/25 16:32]
toh:mikrotik:rb493g [2015/02/14 13:01] (current)
pier4r [Switch Ports (for VLANs)]
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 ==== Flash Layout ==== ==== Flash Layout ====
 Please check out the article [[doc:​techref:​Flash Layout]]. It contains an example and a couple of explanations. Please check out the article [[doc:​techref:​Flash Layout]]. It contains an example and a couple of explanations.
 +<​code>​root@OpenWrt:/#​ cat /proc/mtd
 +dev:    size   ​erasesize ​ name
 +mtd0: 0000b000 00001000 "​routerboot"​
 +mtd1: 00001000 00001000 "​hard_config"​
 +mtd2: 00002000 00001000 "​bios"​
 +mtd3: 00001000 00001000 "​soft_config"​
 +mtd4: 00040000 00020000 "​booter"​
 +mtd5: 003c0000 00020000 "​kernel"​
 +mtd6: 07c00000 00020000 "​rootfs"</​code>​
 +The two partitions used to install OpenWrt are kernel and rootfs. Their sizes are in bytes with hex, which translates to 3840KiB for kernel and 126976KiB for rootfs.
  
 ==== Netboot via BOOTP/TFTP ==== ==== Netboot via BOOTP/TFTP ====
Line 20: Line 30:
 The bootloader is able to load an image in ELF-format via BOOTP/DHCP and TFTP into RAM and execute it. The bootloader is able to load an image in ELF-format via BOOTP/DHCP and TFTP into RAM and execute it.
  
-=== Setup the Host ===+=== Use another OpenWrt router as netboot server === 
 + 
 +This is the easiest way to achieve a live boot of your RB493G, but it requires that you already have an OpenWrt router with net-access available. You will need to obtain an elf-image for the RB493G, and make it available to the other router. If you have enough memory available on the other router, you can put the image on the /tmp folder there, e.g., like this: 
 +<​code>​ssh root@192.168.1.1 
 +wget --directory-prefix=/​tmp http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta2/​ar71xx/​nand/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​ 
 +Now enable dnsmasq'​s built in tftp server, and point it to the correct locations, e.g., like this: 
 +{{ :​toh:​mikrotik:​tftpnetbootconfig.png?​630 |Setting up netboot in Luci, note the full path for the filename. }} 
 +That's it, Save and apply, connect the Eth1/WAN port of RB493G to one of the other routers LAN ports, and continue to [[toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g#​setup.the.routerboard|Setup the Routerboard]]. 
 + 
 +=== Use a Debian based server for netboot ​===
  
 You need a BOOTP- and a TFTP-server on your host-machine,​ we use ''​dnsmasq''​ here, since it can provide both services. Install dnsmasq with: You need a BOOTP- and a TFTP-server on your host-machine,​ we use ''​dnsmasq''​ here, since it can provide both services. Install dnsmasq with:
 <​code>​sudo apt-get install dnsmasq</​code>​ <​code>​sudo apt-get install dnsmasq</​code>​
 +
 +Note that network-manager has a dependency on dnsmasq-base,​ which will block port 53. Hence, you may need to remove dnsmasq-base,​ e.g., with
 +<​code>​sudo aptitude install dnsmasq dnsmasq-base-</​code>​
 +you may need to reinstall dependencies that will be removed in the process.
 +ref. http://​ubuntuforums.org/​showthread.php?​p=12006425
  
 Changes in /​etc/​dnsmasq.conf:​ Changes in /​etc/​dnsmasq.conf:​
Line 34: Line 58:
   - enable dnsmasq'​s built-in TFTP-server <​code>​enable-tftp</​code>​   - enable dnsmasq'​s built-in TFTP-server <​code>​enable-tftp</​code>​
   - set the root directory-for files available via TFTP. <​code>​tftp-root=/​srv/​tftp</​code>​   - set the root directory-for files available via TFTP. <​code>​tftp-root=/​srv/​tftp</​code>​
-  - download initramfs-kernel-image into root-directory of the TFTP-server:​ <​code>​wget --directory-prefix=/​srv/​tftp http://www.ozo.com/​airo/​openwrt/​firmware/latest/2.6/ar71xx/26878/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​+  - download initramfs-kernel-image into root-directory of the TFTP-server:​ <​code>​wget --directory-prefix=/​srv/​tftp http://downloads.openwrt.org/attitude_adjustment/12.09-beta2/ar71xx/nand/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​
   - set filename of kernel image for tftp-server/​BOOTP:<​code>​dhcp-boot=/​srv/​tftp/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​   - set filename of kernel image for tftp-server/​BOOTP:<​code>​dhcp-boot=/​srv/​tftp/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf</​code>​
  
 Finally restart dnsmasq Finally restart dnsmasq
 <​code>​sudo /​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​ <​code>​sudo /​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​
- 
  
 === Setup the Routerboard === === Setup the Routerboard ===
Line 102: Line 125:
  
 Press **Enter** and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP. Press **Enter** and you are in the console of OpenWRT running from RAM and booted via BOOTP/TFTP.
 +
 +Note that you may need to set dns servers to get net-access while running the netbooted image. Enter a working dns for you in
 +<​code>​vi /​tmp/​resolv.conf.auto</​code>​
 +then restart dnsmasq to make the change effective (cross-check that you indeed have net-access afterwords):​
 +<​code>/​etc/​init.d/​dnsmasq restart</​code>​
  
 ==== Permanent Installation ==== ==== Permanent Installation ====
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   - Execute:   - Execute:
 <​code>​ <​code>​
-wget2nand http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta/​ar71xx/​nand/​+wget2nand http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09/​ar71xx/​nand/​
 </​code>​ </​code>​
  
-You can adjust the path-part dependend on the OpenWRT-version ('​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta'), but make sure you use the '​ar71xx/​nand/'​-branch and at least version '​12.09-beta'.+You can adjust the path-part dependend on the OpenWRT-version ('​attitude_adjustment/​12.09'​),​ but make sure you use the '​ar71xx/​nand/'​-branch and at least version '​12.09-rc2'.
  
 ==== Upgrading OpenWrt ==== ==== Upgrading OpenWrt ====
Line 131: Line 159:
 Use the **Permanent-Installation**-Guide via **BOOTP/​TFTP-Netboot** from above. Use the **Permanent-Installation**-Guide via **BOOTP/​TFTP-Netboot** from above.
  
 +==== An installation experience ====
 +=== Providing tftp boot and images with an existing openwrt router ===
 +== On the existing openwrt router ==
 +File ''/​etc/​config/​dhcp''​
 +<​file>​
 +config dnsmasq
 +        ...
 +        option '​enable_tftp'​ '​1'​
 +        option '​tftp_root'​ '/​tmp/​tftpboot/'​
 +
 +config '​boot'​ '​pxe_mikrotik_rb493g'​
 +        option '​filename'​ '​vmlinux'​
 +        option '​servername'​ '​routersetup'​
 +        option '​serveraddress'​ '​192.168.88.254'​
 +
 +config '​host'​ '​mikrotik'​
 +        option '​name' ​  '​mikrotik'​
 +        option '​mac' ​   '<​the ip address of the eth1 port on the mikrotik>​ You can find it from the mikrotik winbox interface'​
 +        option '​ip' ​    '​192.168.88.1'​
 +
 +config dhcp '​lan'​
 +        option interface '​lanmikrotik'​
 +        option start '​10'​
 +        option limit '​150'​
 +        option leasetime '​10m'​
 +
 +...
 +</​file>​
 +
 +File ''/​etc/​config/​network''​
 +<​file>​
 +...
 +
 +config interface '​lan'​
 +        option type '​bridge'​
 +        option ifname '​eth0.0'​
 +        option proto '​static'​
 +        option ipaddr '​192.168.1.254'​
 +        option netmask '​255.255.255.0'​
 +
 +config interface '​lanmikrotik'​
 +        option ifname '​br-lan'​ #it is an alias interface
 +        option proto '​static'​
 +        option ipaddr '​192.168.88.254'​
 +        option netmask '​255.255.255.0'​
 +        ​
 +...
 +</​file>​
 +
 +We need to provide files. Therefore:
 +<​file>​
 +cd /tmp/
 +mkdir tftpboot
 +wget '​http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09-beta2/​ar71xx/​nand/​openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf'​
 +#this image is needed for booting from the ram
 +
 +ln -s openwrt-ar71xx-nand-vmlinux-initramfs.elf vmlinux
 +# to match the bootloader requests
 +</​file>​
 +
 +  * Connect the eth1 port of the mikrotik to the lan ports of the openwrt router.
 +  * Unplug the power cable of the mikrotik.
 +  * With the proper tool press the button (o reset button) near to the eth1 interface on the mikrotik and hold it (continue reading).
 +  * Plug the mikrotik power cable.
 +  * Wait for the boot of the mikrotik (careful, if the mikrotik has a license level 0 won't be possible to boot in this way).
 +  * After 15-20 seconds from the boot, release the button.
 +  * Now connect the port "​eth2"​ on the mikrotik to a proper device. It should show the openwrt interface, reachable on 192.168.1.1 .
 +
 +From the openwrt interface loaded, via telnet, we can do the following:
 +<​file>​
 +wget2nand http://​downloads.openwrt.org/​attitude_adjustment/​12.09/​ar71xx/​nand/​
 +# wait until "Image written, you can now reboot. Remember to change the boot source to Boot"
 +# but we don't have to change nothing because we won't press the reset button that enables the tftp from bootloader.
 +</​file>​
 ===== Basic configuration ===== ===== Basic configuration =====
 -> [[doc:​howto:​basic.config|Basic configuration]] After flashing, proceed with this.\\ -> [[doc:​howto:​basic.config|Basic configuration]] After flashing, proceed with this.\\
Line 162: Line 264:
 |Eth1/​PoE| ​   1   ​| ​ 5   ​| ​ 2   ​| ​  ​eth1.2 | |Eth1/​PoE| ​   1   ​| ​ 5   ​| ​ 2   ​| ​  ​eth1.2 |
  
 +=== ''/​etc/​config/​network''​ every port usable as single port ===
 +<​file>​
 +config interface '​loopback'​
 +      ​option ifname '​lo'​
 +      ​option proto '​static'​
 +      ​option ipaddr '​127.0.0.1'​
 +      ​option netmask '​255.0.0.0'​
 +
 +config switch
 +      ​option name '​switch0'​
 +      ​option reset '​1'​
 +      ​option enable_vlan '​1'​
 +
 +# eth5
 +config switch_vlan
 +      ​option device '​switch0'​
 +      ​option vlan '​1'​
 +      ​option ports '0t 1'
 +
 +# eth2
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch0'​
 +        option vlan '​2'​
 +        option ports '0t 2'
 +
 +# eth3
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch0'​
 +        option vlan '​3'​
 +        option ports '0t 3'
 +
 +# eth4
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch0'​
 +        option vlan '​4'​
 +        option ports '0t 4'
 +
 +config switch
 +       option name '​switch1'​
 +       option reset '​1'​
 +       option enable_vlan '​1'​
 +
 +# eth9
 +config switch_vlan
 +       option device '​switch1'​
 +       option vlan '​1'​
 +       option ports '0t 1'
 +
 +# eth6
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch1'​
 +        option vlan '​2'​
 +        option ports '0t 2'
 +
 +# eth8
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch1'​
 +        option vlan '​3'​
 +        option ports '0t 3'
 +
 +# eth7
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch1'​
 +        option vlan '​4'​
 +        option ports '0t 4'
 +
 +# eth1
 +config switch_vlan
 +        option device '​switch1'​
 +        option vlan '​5'​
 +        option ports '0t 5'
 +</​file>​
 ==== Failsafe mode ==== ==== Failsafe mode ====
 -> [[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe]] -> [[doc:​howto:​generic.failsafe]]
Line 175: Line 349:
 ==== Micro-SD-Card-Reader ==== ==== Micro-SD-Card-Reader ====
  
-Does it work for anyone?+The SD-card reader is now supposed to work, but the needed patch is currently not in trunk. You will find the ticket with history here: https://​dev.openwrt.org/​ticket/​12349
  
 +Hence precompiled images with working SD-card reader is not yet available from the OpenWrt server. Until that is resolved, you can find compiled kernel and rootfs here:
 +http://​ubuntuone.com/​1bZTk4vlKwroZezcdeJa4l
 +http://​ubuntuone.com/​2V1BoearwvvMOsNzUz7mcx
 +
 +Provide them on a web-server, or copy them manually over to the kernel and rootfs partitions on the nand.
  
 ==== USB ==== ==== USB ====
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 See [[doc:​howto:​usb.essentials]] for configuration. See [[doc:​howto:​usb.essentials]] for configuration.
- 
-=== USB-MOD === 
- 
-Components: 
- 
-| 1x | PCB | 
-| 1x | USB-2.0-dual-A-socket | 
-| 1x | USB-2.0- A-plug | 
-| 1x | Traco TSR 1-2450 step-down-converter 5VDC/1A (doesn'​t need any other components like capacitors or heatsink) | 
-| 1x | Multifuse 60VDC/0,5A I<​sub>​hold</​sub>/​1A I<​sub>​trip</​sub>​ | 
- 
-Proto-type and diagrams/​layouts aren't beauties, but maybe someone with more Cadsoft-Eagle-experience can make a nice circuit-diagram and a real PCB-layout. {{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod.zip|Eagle files and datasheets}} ;-) 
- 
-Rudimentary circuit-diagram with USB-2.0 data-port (1) and generic USB-2.0 charger port (2), both supplied by a step-down-converter via the fan-connector of the RB493G: 
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g_usb-mod_circuit-diagram.png|}} 
- 
-Rudimentary PCB-layout, not applicable:​\\ ​ 
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod_pcb.png|}} 
- 
-USB-mod prototype top-view:​\\ ​ 
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-top.jpg|}} 
- 
-USB-mod prototype bottom-view:​\\ ​ 
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-bottom.jpg|}} 
- 
-USB-mod prototype attached:​\\ ​ 
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-attached.jpg|}} 
  
 ===== Hardware ===== ===== Hardware =====
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 | **[[doc:​hardware:​soc|System-On-Chip]]:​** ​ | Atheros AR7161 rev 2 | | **[[doc:​hardware:​soc|System-On-Chip]]:​** ​ | Atheros AR7161 rev 2 |
 | **[[doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]/​Speed** ​       | MIPS 24Kc rev 00019374 680/800 Mhz | | **[[doc:​hardware:​cpu|CPU]]/​Speed** ​       | MIPS 24Kc rev 00019374 680/800 Mhz |
-| **Flash-Chip:​** ​     | [[|ST NAND01GW3B2CN6]] |+| **Flash-Chip:​** ​     | [[Samsung NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit]], [[ST Micro NAND01GW3B2CN6]] or [[Toshiba NAND 128MiB 3,3V 8-bit]] |
 | **Flash size:​** ​     | 128 MiB NAND-Flash | | **Flash size:​** ​     | 128 MiB NAND-Flash |
 | **Micro-SD:​** ​       | 1x Micro-SD-socket (probably SPI) | | **Micro-SD:​** ​       | 1x Micro-SD-socket (probably SPI) |
Line 242: Line 394:
 ==== Photos ==== ==== Photos ====
  
-Enclosure:+CasingMikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails and -antennas (antennas are ALFA ARS-N19CW, 2.4GHz 9dBi - pigtails and antennas not included in enclosure package)
  
-Enclosure Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails and -antennas (antennas are ALFA ARS-N19CW, 2.4GHz 9dBi - pigtails and antennas not included in enclosure package) +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_antennas.jpg?400|}}
- +
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_antennas.jpg|}}+
  
  
 //Front:// //Front://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with serial port, ethernet-port, LEDs and power-connector of Routerboard RB493G+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with serial port, Ethernet-port, LEDs and power-connector of Routerboard RB493G
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​frontside.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​frontside.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Back:// //Back://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), multi-purpose hole (e.g. N-connector,​ Swivel-antenna,​ ...) and ground-screw+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), multi-purpose hole (e.g. N-connector,​ Swivel-antenna,​ ...) and ground-screw
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​backside.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​backside.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //​Left/​Top://​ //​Left/​Top://​
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with eight ethernet-ports of Routerboard RB493G+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with eight Ethernet-ports of Routerboard RB493G
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​left_top.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​left_top.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Right:// //Right://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with venting holes+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with venting holes
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​right.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​right.jpg?400|}}
  
  
 //Bottom:// //Bottom://
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 +Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​bottom.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​bottom.jpg?400|}}
  
-Enclosure ​opened:+Casing ​opened:
  
-Enclosure ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), Routerboard 493G and Routerboard R52nM (Wifi-card)+Casing: ​Mikrotik CA493 with two N-pigtails (not included), Routerboard 493G and Routerboard R52nM (Wifi-card)
  
-{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_pcb.jpg|}}+{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​case_pcb.jpg?400|}}
  
  
Line 341: Line 491:
 In worst case keep "​Reset"​-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console. In worst case keep "​Reset"​-button pressed when powering on the Routerboard to access the recovery-boot-loader via serial console.
 That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/​TFTP). That way the Routerboard can be re-flashed with a RouterOS-image (NPK-file) using the origin MikroTik-Netinstall-software (BOOTP/​TFTP).
 +
 +
 +===== Hardware Mods =====
 +  - as a beginner, you really should inform yourself about [[doc:​hardware:​soldering]] in general and then even obtain some experience!
 +
 +==== USB-Modification ====
 +
 +Components:
 +
 +| 1x | PCB |
 +| 1x | USB-2.0-dual-A-socket,​ e.g., [[http://​dx.com/​p/​diy-dual-usb-female-type-a-180-degree-dip-socket-connector-silver-10-piece-pack-127653|these]]. |
 +| 1x | USB-2.0- A-plug, e.g., [[http://​dx.com/​p/​diy-usb-4-pin-female-type-a-smt-socket-connector-silver-10-piece-pack-127642|these]]. |
 +| 1x | Traco TSR 1-2450 step-down-converter 5VDC/1A (doesn'​t need any other components like capacitors or heatsink). As of this writing you will find the LM7805V voltage regulator at [[http://​dx.com/​p/​lm7805l-5v-voltage-regulator-ics-10-pcs-157382 | DealExtreme]] |
 +| 1x | Multifuse 60VDC/0,5A I<​sub>​hold</​sub>/​1A I<​sub>​trip</​sub>​ |
 +
 +Proto-type and diagrams/​layouts aren't beauties, but maybe someone with more Cadsoft-Eagle-experience can make a nice circuit-diagram and a real PCB-layout: {{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod.zip|Eagle files and datasheets}} ;-)
 +
 +Rudimentary circuit-diagram with USB-2.0 data-port (1) and generic USB-2.0 charger port (2), both supplied by a step-down-converter via the fan-connector of the RB493G:
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g_usb-mod_circuit-diagram.png?​400|}}
 +
 +Rudimentary PCB-layout, not applicable:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​rb493g-usb-mod_pcb.png?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype top-view:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-top.jpg?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype bottom-view:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-bottom.jpg?​400|}}
 +
 +USB-mod prototype attached:​\\ ​
 +{{:​toh:​mikrotik:​usb-mod-attached.jpg?​400|}}
 +
  
 ===== Tags ===== ===== Tags =====
 For some Help with the Tags, please have a look here: [[meta/​tags]] For some Help with the Tags, please have a look here: [[meta/​tags]]
  
-{{tag>​GigabitEthernet ​FastEthernet ​9Port 2PHY USB DetachableAntenna 256RAM 128Flash MIPS MIPS32 24Kc}} +{{tag>​GigabitEthernet ​2NIC 0WNIC 9Port USB DetachableAntenna 256RAM 128Flash ​gt32flash miniPCI 3miniPCI ​MIPS MIPS32 24Kc}}
toh/mikrotik/rb493g.1356449522.txt.bz2 · Last modified: 2012/12/25 16:32 (external edit)