|: REDUNDANT with wired.wan.with.3g.dongle|
This recipe explains how to setup and configure OpenWrt for using a USB 3g/UMTS-modem for WAN connection. You may want to checkout the
multiwan package to use this simultaneously with other connections to the internet.
Please use OpenWrt 10.03.1-rc3 'Backfire' or newer image.
You are advised to inform yourself on how easily cellular mobile telephony can be intercepted. Remember this is a wireless connection. Also, some providers block certain ports: do not forget to inform yourself about that, too
If you've got a Huawei E367 (which will work), or a Huawei E585 (which does not currently work), you may want to read the following tutorial (which includes info on why you may not be able to get the on-board micro-SD card to function): http://www.draisberghof.de/usb_modeswitch/bb/viewtopic.php?t=836
First install required packages:
If you are doing an offline installation, you might need some of these packages handy
Now plug your USB Dongle to the USB port and restart the router.
Check dmesg for:
USB Serial support registered for generic usbserial_generic 1-1:1.0: generic converter detected USB Serial support registered for generic usbserial_generic 1-1:1.0: generic converter detected usb 1-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB0 usbserial_generic 1-1:1.1: generic converter detected usb 1-1: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB1 ... usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic usbserial: USB Serial Driver core USB Serial support registered for GSM modem (1-port) usbcore: registered new interface driver option option: v0.7.2:USB Driver for GSM modems
If above lines do not appear in dmesg, but instead you see something like:
scsi1 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices usb-storage: device found at 4 usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning scsi 1:0:0:0: CD-ROM Novatel Mass Storage 2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 0 scsi 1:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 5 usb-storage: device scan complete
then, depending on your modem, you have to switch device mode (described below).
If you still can't see
usbserial_generic in dmesg, try loading the usbserial module (<vid> and <pid> are Vendor and Product ID of your device):
rmmod usbserial #optional insmod /lib/modules/`uname -r`/usbserial.ko vendor=0x<vid> product=0x<pid>
Check dmesg again for:
usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial USB Serial support registered for generic usbserial_generic 1-1.3:1.0: generic converter detected usb 1-1.3: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB0 usbserial_generic 1-1.3:1.1: generic converter detected usb 1-1.3: generic converter now attached to ttyUSB1 usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic usbserial: USB Serial Driver core
Install and use the
usb-modeswitch-data packages with the correct hardware ID's for your USB Dongle in order to switch the USB dongle from CDROM file system to Modem mode (→ flip flop). Read on here how to use this package.
Now your USB Dongle should create logs in dmesg. If it doesn't, try
usb_modeswitch -c /etc/usb_modeswitch.d/<file>where
<file>represents the modem's combined vendor/product id, e.g. 19d2:0083 for a ZTE MF190. Obviously, that file must exist in the forementioned directory.
If your device doesn't work with usb_modeswitch, try the sdparm method.
This method uses
sdparm to issue SCSI eject command to the emulated CDROM device. This is enough to put some modems into modem mode (tested on Ovation MC935D).
Before you start, make note of your modem's vendor and product ID:
# cat /proc/bus/usb/devices ... P: Vendor=1410 ProdID=5020 Rev= 0.00 S: Manufacturer=Novatel Wireless, Inc. ...
First, find out your device address - in this example it's going to be
sg0. Then issue the following:
sdparm --eject /dev/sg0
Then, check for changes of your product ID:
# cat /proc/bus/usb/devices ... P: Vendor=1410 ProdID=7001 Rev= 0.00 S: Manufacturer=Novatel Wireless, Inc. S: Product=Qualcomm Configuration ... I:* If#= 0 Alt= 0 #EPs= 3 Cls=ff(vend.) Sub=ff Prot=ff Driver=(none) ...
The shown configuration replaces the WAN line, so no further changes are needed to the firewall/other configuration. Note that if you also want to use the WAN port, you have to define it as WAN2 in the configuration. If you define the 3g connection as WAN2, you have to do more changes to other parts, like firewall and so on.
Replace 'pincode' with the correct pincode of your SIM card. Note that an disabled pincode on the SIM card is problematic, please enable it. If you are connecting to a phone where the pincode has already been entered, there if no need for this.
Replace 'device' with the correct USB port of your modem. On a phone this might for example be /dev/ttyACM0.
Replace 'apn' with the correct APN of your 3g/umts provider.
Note in case your APN also requires an username/password, you can configure this too, just add to the network configuration file:
Replace 'username' and 'password' with the correct username/password you received from your 3g provider.
For some providers, apperently it is neccessary to add 'noipdefault' to 'pppd_options'. If logread shows that the connection was established and CHAP authentication was successful, but the connection was immediately dropped after, then try:
option 'pppd_options' 'noipdefault'
Now you have configured the network interface.
Now we need to check if the default chatscript does work with your 3g provider or not.
You can find it here '/etc/chatscripts/3g.chat', it looks like this:
ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER' ABORT ERROR REPORT CONNECT TIMEOUT 12 "" "AT&F" OK "ATE1" OK 'AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","$USE_APN"' ABORT 'NO CARRIER' TIMEOUT 15 OK "ATD*99***1#" CONNECT ' '
If your modem needs a special AT command, your can add it to this file.
For troubleshooting or locating the best position for the USB Dongle, you can add the AT command
"" "AT+CSQ"to check signal quality. It returns the signal quality in RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) and in BER (Bit Error Rate, reported in percent).
Lower rssi value is stronger signal, scale is from 0 to 99, were 99 means no signal. Values higher then 31 means real bad signal.
There is a misunderstanding of rssi in the sentence above. A higher rssi value represents a stronger signal, scale is from 0 to 99, where 1 is the lowest detectable signal and 31 a very good signal. Don't expect your signal to go all the way up to 99, though.
If BER returns 99 it means not known or not detectable.
Command return is "+CSQ: <rssi>,<ber>"
Looks like this in
send (AT+CSQ^M) expect (OK) ^M AT+CSQ^M^M +CSQ: 11,99^M ^M OK -- got it
A more flexible way to check signal strength, but also network registration and SIM status is to run
gcomfrom the console, or if it returns a port-in-use error because your connection is already up,
gcom -d /dev/ttyUSBxwhere
xrepresents a port number not used by the wan connection itself.
Just type on console 'ifup wan'
dmesg logread for successful connect:
pppd 2.4.4 started by root, uid 0 abort on (BUSY) abort on (ERROR) report (CONNECT) timeout set to 12 seconds send (AT&F^M) expect (OK) AT&F^M^M OK -- got it send (ATE1^M) expect (OK) ^M ATE1^M^M OK -- got it send (AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","your.apn"^M) abort on (NO CARRIER) timeout set to 15 seconds expect (OK) ^M AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","your.apn"^M^M OK -- got it send (ATD*99***1#^M) expect (CONNECT) ^M ATD*99***1#^M^M CONNECT -- got it send ( ^M) Serial connection established. Using interface 3g-wan Connect: 3g-wan <--> /dev/ttyUSB0 Could not determine remote IP address: defaulting to x.x.x.x local IP address x.x.x.x remote IP address x.x.x.x primary DNS address x.x.x.x secondary DNS address x.x.x.x adding wan (3g-wan) to firewall zone wan
That's it, now you should be connected.
If you want an permanent connect from startup, add 'ifup wan' command to '/etc/rc.local' file.
/etc/hotplug.d/iface/30-aiccu starts aiccu when the WAN connection is established. It seems however that, in the case of 3G connections, the start scripts are started just a bit too early and the start of aiccu fails. I have butchered the script a bit:
#!/bin/sh [ "$ACTION" = "ifup" -a "$INTERFACE" = "wan" ] && /etc/init.d/aiccu enabled && sleep 15; /etc/init.d/aiccu restart
Note that sixxs really frowns upon quick re-re-restarts of aiccu, it may get your account blocked for unjust use of resources. Be careful with these scripts.
You can use many usb 3G dongles with easy using active USB hub.
We assume You have at least one 3g dongle configured and active and You have working internet connection. If not - You'll need to install modules for 3g support before going to connect any 3g dongle. Check 3gdongle for more information.
1. Connect active USB hub to openWrt router. Check if hub power supply is big enough to power total count of 3g dongles. Roughly You'll need 500+ mAmp per one 3g dongle. Remember that modem can slightly exceed its declared power consumption in HDSPA+ modes. Be generous and pick USB hub with some power source overhead.
2. Connect all 3g dongles and start.
3. Browse through logread to check if modems are properly recognized and /ttyUSB ports are assigned.
4. Usually 3g modem have few ports - one for connection and others are service types. IE Huawei E1750 have 3 ports. First is communication port and last is service one. If You have only one modem it will be recognized as /ttyUSB0, /ttyUSB1 and /ttyUSB2. You need to configure interface using /ttyUSB0 (first one). Huawei E372 have 5 ports but similar to other Huawei communication port is the first one.
5. You need to configure interfaces. Ive configured first modem modifying existing Wan interface in "/etc/config/network":
config 'interface' 'wan' option 'proto' '3g' option 'service' 'umts' option 'device' '/dev/ttyUSB0' option 'apn' 'internet' option 'pincode' '' option 'username' '' option 'password' ''Usually You need to provide APN name in "option 'apn' 'Name-Of-APN-HERE'". If Your sim card have PIN or need to use username or pass - put it respectively there. This should gives You working internet connection.
6. Check in log read next /ttyUSB[X] ports. In my case I have second modem starting with /ttyUSB3 (previous one use /ttyUSB0 to /ttyUSB2) so second interface looks like this:
config 'interface' 'wan2' option 'proto' '3g' option 'service' 'umts' option 'maxwait' '0' option 'device' '/dev/ttyUSB3' option 'apn' 'internet' option 'pincode' '' option 'username' '' option 'password' ''7. remember to add second interface to zone in firewall "/etc/config/firewall":
config 'zone' option 'name' 'wan' option 'input' 'REJECT' option 'output' 'ACCEPT' option 'forward' 'REJECT' option 'masq' '1' option 'mtu_fix' '1' option 'network' 'wan wan2'Look at last line - there is wan2 added.
8. Now You have both interfaces configured and they should work.
9. You can use both interfaces as failover
loadbalncer - https://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=23904
Note: It seems multiwan isnt perfectly suit for 3G modems in terms of stability. Modems dont reconnect automatically by HealthMonitor. Also after Mobem being manually restarted, multiwan dont use newly restarted interface until multiwan restart is restarted.
Configuration files for two 3G modems paired in multiwan:
Network (default route to 0 and peerdns to 0):
config 'interface' 'loopback' option 'ifname' 'lo' option 'proto' 'static' option 'ipaddr' '127.0.0.1' option 'netmask' '255.0.0.0' config 'interface' 'lan' option 'ifname' 'eth0.1' option 'type' 'bridge' option 'proto' 'static' option 'ipaddr' '192.168.1.1' option 'netmask' '255.255.255.0' config 'interface' 'wan' option 'proto' '3g' option 'service' 'umts' option 'device' '/dev/ttyUSB0' option 'apn' 'vpn' option 'pincode' '' option 'username' 'vpn' option 'password' 'vpn' option 'maxwait' '20' option 'defaultroute' '0' config 'interface' 'wan2' option 'proto' '3g' option 'service' 'umts' option 'device' '/dev/ttyUSB3' option 'apn' 'erainternet' option 'pincode' '' option 'username' 'erainternet' option 'password' 'erainternet' option 'maxwait' '10' option 'defaultroute' '0' config 'switch' option 'name' 'rtl8366s' option 'reset' '1' option 'enable_vlan' '1' option 'blinkrate' '2' config 'switch_vlan' option 'device' 'rtl8366s' option 'vlan' '1' option 'ports' '0 1 2 3 5t' config 'switch_port' option 'device' 'rtl8366s' option 'port' '1' option 'led' '6' config 'switch_port' option 'device' 'rtl8366s' option 'port' '2' option 'led' '9' config 'switch_port' option 'device' 'rtl8366s' option 'port' '5' option 'led' '2'
Firewall - add second wan zones
config 'defaults' option 'syn_flood' '1' option 'input' 'ACCEPT' option 'output' 'ACCEPT' option 'forward' 'REJECT' option 'drop_invalid' '1' config 'zone' option 'name' 'lan' option 'network' 'lan' option 'input' 'ACCEPT' option 'output' 'ACCEPT' option 'forward' 'REJECT' config 'zone' option 'name' 'wan' option 'input' 'REJECT' option 'output' 'ACCEPT' option 'forward' 'REJECT' option 'masq' '1' option 'mtu_fix' '1' option 'network' 'wan' config 'rule' option 'src' 'wan' option 'proto' 'udp' option 'dest_port' '68' option 'target' 'ACCEPT' option 'family' 'ipv4' config 'rule' option 'src' 'wan' option 'proto' 'icmp' option 'icmp_type' 'echo-request' option 'family' 'ipv4' option 'target' 'ACCEPT' config 'rule' option 'src' 'wan' option 'proto' 'icmp' list 'icmp_type' 'echo-request' list 'icmp_type' 'destination-unreachable' list 'icmp_type' 'packet-too-big' list 'icmp_type' 'time-exceeded' list 'icmp_type' 'bad-header' list 'icmp_type' 'unknown-header-type' list 'icmp_type' 'router-solicitation' list 'icmp_type' 'neighbour-solicitation' option 'limit' '1000/sec' option 'family' 'ipv6' option 'target' 'ACCEPT' config 'rule' option 'src' 'wan' option 'dest' '*' option 'proto' 'icmp' list 'icmp_type' 'echo-request' list 'icmp_type' 'destination-unreachable' list 'icmp_type' 'packet-too-big' list 'icmp_type' 'time-exceeded' list 'icmp_type' 'bad-header' list 'icmp_type' 'unknown-header-type' option 'limit' '1000/sec' option 'family' 'ipv6' option 'target' 'ACCEPT' config 'include' option 'path' '/etc/firewall.user' config 'forwarding' option 'dest' 'wan' option 'src' 'lan' config 'rule' option 'target' 'ACCEPT' config 'zone' option 'name' 'wan2' option 'forward' 'REJECT' option 'output' 'ACCEPT' option 'network' 'wan2' option 'input' 'REJECT' option 'masq' '1' option 'mtu_fix' '1' config 'forwarding' option 'dest' 'wan2' option 'src' 'lan'
Multiwan - Additionally add 'option 'health_monitor' 'serial'' at the beggining to help healthmonitor check for dropped ppp interface (Proposed by Jolouis).
config 'multiwan' 'config' option 'health_monitor' 'serial' option 'default_route' 'fastbalancer' option 'debug' '1' config 'interface' 'wan' option 'health_fail_retries' '3' option 'health_recovery_retries' '5' option 'failover_to' 'fastbalancer' option 'timeout' '10' option 'dns' '184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11' option 'weight' '10' option 'health_interval' '120' option 'icmp_hosts' 'gateway' config 'interface' 'wan2' option 'timeout' '3' option 'health_fail_retries' '3' option 'health_recovery_retries' '5' option 'failover_to' 'fastbalancer' option 'dns' '18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124' option 'weight' '10' option 'health_interval' '120' option 'icmp_hosts' 'gateway' config 'mwanfw' option 'src' '192.168.1.150' option 'wanrule' 'wan2' config 'mwanfw' option 'wanrule' 'fastbalancer'
I have issues with auro reconnecting modems so Ive modified script for checking if modems are up. Script check modems separately. Ive based this on great tutorial found at http://eko.one.pl/?p=openwrt-3g#automatycznyrestartpoczenia
# touch /bin/tester.sh # chmod 755 /bin/tester.sh
Put this into file:
#!/bin/sh if ! ping -q -c 1 -W 10 -I 3g-wan 126.96.36.199 > /dev/null; then (ifup wan; sleep 5; /etc/init.d/multiwan restart) & fi if ! ping -q -c 1 -W 10 -I 3g-wan2 188.8.131.52 > /dev/null; then (ifup wan2; sleep 5; /etc/init.d/multiwan restart) & fi
# /etc/init.d/cron stop # echo "*/2 * * * * /bin/tester.sh" >> /etc/crontabs/root # /etc/init.d/cron enable # /etc/init.d/cron start
Script will ping through two wans: 3g-wan and 3g-wan2 and if not recieving ping restart interface respectively. Additionally, It will wait 5 sec and force restart multiwan as it seems restarting modem wasnt recognized by multiwan automatically and it wasnt add to routing table. Restart of multiwan should take care of this situation.
Additionally in case of DSN being not visible by local clients put 'list 'dhcp_option' '6,184.108.40.206,220.127.116.11' More here: https://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=17316 ' code into etc/config/dhcp
config 'dnsmasq' option 'domainneeded' '1' option 'boguspriv' '1' option 'filterwin2k' '0' option 'localise_queries' '1' option 'rebind_protection' '1' option 'rebind_localhost' '1' option 'local' '/lan/' option 'domain' 'lan' option 'expandhosts' '1' option 'nonegcache' '0' option 'authoritative' '1' option 'readethers' '1' option 'leasefile' '/tmp/dhcp.leases' option 'resolvfile' '/tmp/resolv.conf.auto' config 'dhcp' 'lan' option 'interface' 'lan' option 'start' '100' option 'limit' '150' option 'leasetime' '12h' list 'dhcp_option' '6,18.104.22.168,22.214.171.124' config 'dhcp' 'wan' option 'interface' 'wan' option 'ignore' '1'
It could be made to work as described here in our Forum.
If you want to build an own firmware containing support for a UMTS Modem, maybe this BuildHowTo will help you: Wireless router with a 3G dongle and multiwan for failover on Wired, Wireless client (routed) and 3G